Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Human Development Study Questions 2,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Human Development Study Questions 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 14, 15, 18, 20, 23, 25, 28, 32, 33, 34 The Developing Person s Developmental psychology. The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death. "Womb to tomb." Chapter Outline Physical Development s Intellectual Development s Moral Development s Social Development s Identity s Human Development s Physical Development - Prenatal growth - Infancy - Childhood through adolescence - Adulthood Human Development s Physical Development - Prenatal growth - Infancy - Childhood through adolescence - Adulthood Prenatal Development s Conception. Zygote. Union of sperm and ovum. Fertilized egg. 2 week period of rapid cell growth. s s Embryo. s Fetus. Developing human organism from 28 weeks after conception. Developing human organism from 9 weeks until birth. Prenatal Development s Developmental stage in which a human experiences the quickest growth Prenatal Development 40 days 45 days 2 months 4months Prenatal Development s Developmental stage in which a human experiences the quickest growth s Prenatal development adversely affected by the environment Prenatal Development s Teratogens environmental agents that can harm a developing child Alcohol Accutane Street drugs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). s s A pattern of birth complications and defects that result from excessive consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Leading cause of mental retardation. Human Development s Physical Development - Prenatal growth - Infancy - Childhood through adolescence - Adulthood Infancy s Experience with the environment begins to shape subsequent development - Brain is plastic - Brain develops in accordance with genetic map and environmental experiences Infancy s Developmental milestones - muscle control starts with upper torso and moves towards legs Human Development s Physical Development - Prenatal growth - Infancy - Childhood through adolescence - Adulthood Childhood Growth slows down s Physical growth less apparent but brain continues to develop s Ex. Hand-Eye Coordination Adolescence s Puberty stage when humans reach sexual maturity. Adolescence s Puberty stage when humans reach sexual maturity. Females: estrogen leads to development of breasts and menarche Adolescence s Puberty stage when humans reach sexual maturity. Females: estrogen leads to development of breasts and menarche Males: testosterone leads to facial hair, sperm production and lowered voice Human Development s Physical Development - Prenatal growth - Infancy - Childhood through adolescence - Adulthood Adulthood Height of physical and mental abilities in 20's s Decline of physical and mental abilities begins shortly after. s Adulthood s Neurological changes associated with aging Adulthood s Neurological changes associated with aging Loss of brain cells Adulthood s Neurological changes associated with aging Loss of brain cells Dementia Adulthood s Neurological changes associated with aging Loss of brain cells Dementia Changes in brain cell structure Intellectual Development s How does a baby human experience the sensory world? Babies born with basic sensory abilities that help ensure it's survival Intellectual Development s Depth perception Visual cliff Infants balk at crawling over cliff at about 6 mos. s s Intellectual Development s Differences in adult and infant sensory capabilities Hard to detect fine patterns 20/600 vision Hard to discriminate sounds Intellectual Development s How do humans make sense of their sensory world? Jean Piaget Schemas s s Assimilation s Accommodation s schemas are modified during four developmental stages Intellectual Development s Jean Piaget's four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) Preoperational (2-7 yrs) Concrete operational (7-11 yrs) Formal operational (12- adulthood) Intellectual Development s Sensorimotor: birth 2 yrs. Object permanence: Intellectual Development s Preoperational: 2 6 yrs. Pretend play Principle of conservation Egocentrism Intellectual Development s Concrete Operational: 7 11 yrs. Mathematical operations: Conservation: Intellectual Development Intellectual Development s Formal Operational: 12 yrs. adulthood Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Moral Development s Morality ability to distinguish between right and wrong actions Moral Development s Morality ability to distinguish between right and wrong actions Lawrence Kohlberg theory of three stages of moral development s Kohlberg's theory: s Preconventional Morality Conventional Morality Postconventional Morality s s Social Development Harlow's Monkeys s Surrogate Mother Experiments. Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even when feeding from the nourishing wire mother. Social Development s Critical period. s Imprinting. An optimal period shortly after birth when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. The process by which certain animals form attachment during a critical period early in life. Person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. s Temperament. Attachment--Mary Ainsworth s Secure attachment. s Insecure attachment. In mother's presence they will play comfortably and explore their environment. Mother leaves, they are distressed. When she returns they seek contact with her. Less likely to explore their environment. Often clingy. Mother leaves they cry and remain upset when she returns. s InsecureAmbivalent attachment. Anxious bond when separated. Upon mother's return they seek to be near her and angrily resist contact with her. Attachment: s John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth Harry Harlow's monkeys Suggested that attachment is more than food s s Effects of Attachment s Secure attachment: s Predicts social competence. More outgoing and enthusiastic. Approach life with a sense of basic trust. Deprivation of attachment: Withdrawn, frightened. Increase aggression. Development of Identity s Trust vs. Mistrust. s Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt. Infancy (1st year). Task: If needs are met basic trust develops. Toddler (2nd year). Task: Learning to exercise will and independency or doubt abilities. Preschool 35 years. Task: Learn to initiate tasks & carry out plans or feel guilty about efforts to be independent. s Initiative vs. Guilt. Development of Identity s Industry vs. Inferiority. Identity vs. Confusion 6 puberty feel competent. s s Intimacy vs. Isolation adolescence Task:trying on roles and identities to find what fits them best. Young adulthood. Task: learn to connect with a romantic partner. Development of Identity s Generativity vs. Stagnation. s Integrity vs. Despair. Middle adult (40's to 60's). Task: Discovering a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family & work or feeling of a lack of purpose. Late adult (60's +). Task: When reflecting on life feeling a sense of satisfaction or failure. ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2008 for the course PSYC 110 taught by Professor Delanger during the Spring '06 term at University of Tennessee.

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