Political Science Winter Semester January 9thWar & GenocideDefining war:Involves application of force to pursue endsInsufficient: true of police officer, settlers and bulliesStanford encyclopedia: a war is “an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities.” Distinct from bar fights, gang fights, or feud between neighborsTraditionally, political communities were defined as those entities which either are statesor intend to become states (in order to allow for civil war). Wars may be defined by their:Scale: wars may be limited (Kuwait in 1991) or total (Hitler’s war).Methods: wars may target military, industrial, or civilian targets, or some combination of the three.Services employed: wars may be naval, aerial, or conducted by land-based armed forces.Their effects: (i) Napoleonic wars 1803-1815: defeat of Napoleon, destruction of the French empire, establishment of the Council of Europe, Pax Britannica. (ii) Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871: reunification of Germany & embitterment of France.(iii) World War I: Russian Revolution, destruction of Ottoman and Habsburg Empires.(iv) World War II: Bolshevization of Europe, decolonization in S/E Asia, emergence of human rights norms and treaties. In all wars, their scale and consequences are very hard to control; war, once unleashed, acquires its own logic and momentum, the result of which is generally a willful pursuit ofbestial brutality that would have earlier horrified those committing it. Religion & war A particular powerful motivation for warCenturies of religious wars were fought between Protestants and Roman Catholics within Europe and overseas (with politics, profit, and piety ever-present motives).Centuries of religious war were fought between Moors and Christians on the Iberian Peninsula, and between Ottoman Muslims and Christian Europeans in southeast Europe.As secular autocracies crumble under the force of internal protest or western armed intervention, religious wars between Sunni and Shiite Muslims are redefining the MiddleEast, and once again bringing the horror of war to civilian populations.GenocideGenus = race/tribe (Greek)Cida= killing of (Latin)
Distinctly 20thcentury concept, invented by the Polish jurist Raphael Lemkin. Lemkin’s efforts led to the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. According to Article II:In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:(a) Killing members of the group;(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part(d) Imposing measures to prevent births within the group(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.