Chapter 6 - Language & Thought Chapter 6 Language...

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Unformatted text preview: Language & Thought Chapter 6 Language Language Structure Language Development Language -spoken, written or signed words -communicate meaning Language Structure Phonemes Morphemes Grammar Language Structure phonemes Language Differences 40 phonemes in English Hawaiian language has 13 Khoisan language (! X ) has 141 Language Structure morpheme UN APPROACH ABLE Language Structure Semantics Example: Laughing Laughed Language Structure Syntax -The bank robbed the man. -The man robbed the bank. How do we develop language? -Babbling -Few words -Sentences Babbling Stage 6-18 months utter variety of sounds that correspond to phonemes; often repetitive First Words 10-13 months Usually refer to objects Resemble babbling: dada, mama One-word Stage 12 months Single words--often nouns Communicate meaning "Mommy" "Doggy!" One-word Stage Overextension "Bunny!" One-word Stage Underextension "Dog!" One-word Stage Two-word Stage 24 months telegraphic speech "go car" "want juice" Complete Sentences > 24 months longer phrases follow syntax Complete Sentences Errors occur when we begin to speak Over-regularizations There goed the deers! Bilingualism Learning 2 languages 6 million kids in U.S. Doesn't seem to impair language development When learning a second language, the younger the better Animal Language Alex 50 objects 7 colors & 5 shapes Animal Language Koko the Gorilla Over 2,000 words Animal Language Kanzi--bonobo chimp Appears to understand syntax Correct on 72% of 660 requests Explaining Language Development Behaviorist Theories Nativist Theories Interactionist Theories Behaviorist Theories B. F. Skinner -association -imitation -reinforcement Nativist Theories Noam Chomsky -Language acquisition device (LAD) -children seem to acquire language effortlessly Interactionist Theories Biological maturation, Neural development Cognitive development Language Development Linguistic Environment Thinking Problem Solving Making Decisions Forming Judgments Problem Solving Types of Problems: Problems of inducing structure Problems of arrangement Problems of transformation Types of Problems Problems of inducing structure: Analogy Problem: Club : Golf :: Bat : _______ Types of Problems Problems of arrangement: Candle Problem Types of Problems Problems of transformation: Carry out a sequence of transformations to reach a specific goal Tower of Hanoi: www.lhs.berkeley.edu/java/tower/tower.html Obstacles to Problem Solving Functional fixedness Mental set Irrelevant information Unnecessary constraints Obstacles to Problem Solving Functional fixedness Obstacles to Problem Solving Mental set Obstacles to Problem Solving Irrelevant Information Unnecessary constraints Nine-dot problem Solving Problems Trial & Error Algorithms Heuristics Forming subgoals Working backward Solving Problems Unscramble the letters of this word: ROLCOEHGAYA Hint: Kind of scientific study Solving Problems Trial & Error - often applied haphazardly - don't always end up solving problem Solving Problems Algorithms - Step-by-step - Guarantees solution But...SLOWER ROLCOEHGAYA Often end with "-OLOGY" ROLCOEHGAYA What's left? RCEHAA + OLOGY Solving Problems Heuristics Simple strategies Faster But...more error Solving Problems Forming subgoals Finding intermediate steps to solve a problem Decision Making Involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them... Decision Making Decisions are more difficult when choosing between fairly comparable choices Decision Making Strategies: Additive can weight attributes differently Elimination Making Judgments Availability heuristic: Availability Heuristic Role of media Making Judgments Representativeness heuristic TTTTTT HTHTTH Stereotypes Example Linda is 31, single, outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Example Which statement is more likely? a. a. Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement. Making Judgments Conjunction fallacy: tendency to estimate the odds of 2 uncertain events happening together as greater than the odds of either event happening alone ...
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