Chapter 9 - Consciousness Consciousness Chapter Questions 4...

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Unformatted text preview: Consciousness Consciousness Chapter Questions 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, Levels of Awareness Sigmund Freud Conscious Unconscious Brain Activity Brain waves Beta Alpha Theta Delta Biological Rhythms Circadian Rhythms: Biological Rhythms More on circadian rhythms: Jet lag Melatonin Consciousness Sleep Hypnosis Meditation Drug use Sleep Cycle During sleep, people cycle through a series of five stages. Brain Waves Awake low voltage, high frequency beta waves Stage 1 theta waves Stage 2 sleep spindles & mixed EEG activity Stage 3 & 4 (SWS) high amplitude, lowfrequency delta waves REM sleep low voltage, high frequency waves REM Sleep REM is a deep stage of sleep, yet EEG activity during this stage (with highfrequency beta waves) resembles that of people who are awake. In this stage of sleep, people have rapid eye movements and vivid dreaming. Age & Sleep Newborns sleep 68 times in 24 hours (often getting > 16 hrs); also have more REM sleep As adults age, SWS decreases shift towards lighter sleep Culture and Sleep Cosleeping discouraged in Westerns cultures; common in many other cultures in world Japan "Siesta cultures" mostly found in tropical regions; 12 hour midday nap during hottest part of day Sleep Deprivation Complete deprivation Sleep Deprivation Study with College Students: sleepdeprived group performed lower on measure of cognitive performance than nonsleep deprived Sleep Deprivation Partial sleep deprivation Impairs attention, reaction time, motor coordination, and decision making Sleep Deprivation Selective deprivation participants in sleep laboratory are woken up during specific stages of sleep (i.e. REM or SWS sleep) Sleep Disorders Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep apnea Night terrors Sleep walking Sleep Disorders Insomnia: Sleep Disorders Insomnia: Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy: Sleep Disorders Sleep apnea: Affects 2% women; 4% of men b/t ages of 3060 Treated with surgery or drugs Sleep Disorders Nightmares: Associated with stress Sleep Disorders Night terrors: Usually occur during stage 4 Common in 38 year olds Not indicative of emotional disturbance Usually only temporary Sleep Disorders Somnambulism (sleepwalking): During first 2 hours of sleep Lasts from 15 seconds to 30 minutes Sleepwalkers are prone to accidents it is safe to awaken them Dreams What are dreams? Often thought to occur only during REM sleep, have bizarre storylike quality & regarded as real by dreamer Dreams However... Do happen in nonREM Often deal with real people & realistic situations Contents of Dreams Kids' dreams 1113dreams become more adultlike: Internal conflict Sex Aggression Misfortune Contents of Dreams Day residue Culture and Dreams Many nonWestern cultures view dreams as important sources of info about oneself, the future, or spiritual world. Theories about Dreams Wish fulfillment Problemsolving view Activationsynthesis model Theories about Dreams Sigmund Freud Wish fulfillment Theories about Dreams Rosalind Cartwright Problemsolving view Theories about Dreams Hobson & McCarley Activationsynthesis model Consciousness Sleep Hypnosis Meditation Drug use The History of Hypnosis Anton Mesmer (1734 1815) and "animal magnetism" Definition of hypnosis What is hypnosis? Abilities of hypnotized people: Objects become invisible Ammonia smells sweet "human plank" Posthypnotic amnesia How does it work? Subjects asked to focus on specific point. Often, subject asked to relax & concentrate on hypnotist's voice. Suggestions are given. Most people are at least moderately hypnotizable. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Can anyone be hypnotized? Hypnosis & Memory Recall Forensic use of hypnosis Hypnotic age regression Remembering past lives? Can Hypnosis Help People? Posthypnotic suggestions Hypnotherapy--does it work? Pain relief Theories Behind Hypnosis Hypnosis as a social phenomenon "good hypnotic subjects" Hypnosis as divided consciousness "hidden observer" Consciousness Sleep Hypnosis Meditation Drug use Meditation Trains attention to heighten awareness & bring mental processes under greater voluntary control Physiology of Meditation Alpha & theta waves more prominent Heart rate, respiration rate, 02 consumption decline High activity in prefrontal cortex Low activity in parietal lobe LongTerm Benefits Associated with lower levels of stress hormones Beneficial effects on blood pressure, selfesteem, mood, & overall physical health Meditation Pure Consciousness or Relaxation? Benefits may be attainable through other methods of relaxation Consciousness Sleep Hypnosis Meditation Drug use Psychoactive Drugs Chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning Psychoactive Drugs Narcotics Sedatives Stimulants Hallucinogens Cannabis Alcohol MDMA Psychoactive Drugs Narcotics (opium) Morphine Heroin Psychoactive Drugs Sedatives Barbiturates (Seconal) Nonbarbiturates (Quaalude) Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants Methamphetamine Cocaine Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens LSD Mescaline Psilocybin Psychoactive Drugs Cannabis Marijuana Hashish THC Psychoactive Drugs Alcohol Beer Wine Liquor Psychoactive Drugs MDMA Ecstasy Drug Use Tolerance Dependence: Physical Psychological ...
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