Chapter 10 - Learning Chapter 10 Learning 2 3 4 5 7,8 11 12...

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Unformatted text preview: Learning Chapter 10 Learning 2, 3, 4, 5, 7,8, 11, 12, 18, 19, 20 Learning Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Behaviorism Behaviorists Behaviorism Methodological behaviorists Sometimes use observations to make inferences about internal events (intervening variables) Example: Deprivation of food causes hunger Behaviorism Radical behaviorists Rather than saying food deprivation leads to hunger; simply say that it leads to eating Behaviorism Jacques Loeb--studied animal behavior Stimulus-response psychology the attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response Behaviorism There are various assumptions that behaviorists make: 1. 2. 3. Behaviorism Determinism Deprive a dog of water, and they will seek it Behaviorism Ineffectiveness of mental explanations descriptions of internal states such as motivations, emotions and mental states are generally useless Instead of saying "The man was nervous", say: "The man was sweating and trembling". Behaviorism Power of environment to mold behavior idea that behavior produces certain outcomes, which then determines future behavior If David does something bad he is put in time out, which may influence future behavior Learning Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist noticed that his research dogs would salivate as soon as they saw the men who fed them Wanted to do more research on this "psychological secretion" Classical Conditioning process by which an organism learns a new association between two paired stimuli--a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflexive response Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning unconditioned reflex automatic connections between a stimulus (food) and a response (salivation) Example: a puff of air blown into your eye (stimulus) causes you to blink (response) Classical Conditioning unconditioned stimulus (UCS) unconditioned response (UCR) Classical Conditioning In Pavlov's dogs, we know that because of the unconditioned reflex, the UCS (food) caused the UCR (salivation). What happens when you pair the UCS (food) with a neutral stimulus (ringing bell)? Classical Conditioning At first, neutral stimulus (ringing bell) causes no response from the dog. As bell continues to be paired with UCS, the dog begins to salivate when it hears the bell. It has become a conditioned stimulus. Classical Conditioning conditioned stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR) Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery Classical Conditioning Learning Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Operant Conditioning process of changing behavior by following a response with reinforcement Operant Conditioning Edward Thorndike cats could escape puzzle box by pressing lever Operant Conditioning learning curve graph of the changes in behavior that occur over the course of learning Cat gradually got out of box quicker, but never had sudden insight Accidentally bumping the lever acted as a reinforcement Operant Conditioning reinforcement disequilibrium principle when at equilibrium, we divide our time among activities in a preferred way, and if we are removed from that state, a return to it is reinforcing Operant Conditioning Any shift from preferred way of dividing time causes disequilibrium Opportunity to restore equilibrium will be reinforcing A person who must work overtime for the next three weekends makes an extra effort to finish up the assigned work to return to his preferred activity of playing golf. Playing Golf Sleeping Eating Working Operant Conditioning Primary reinforcers Operant Conditioning Secondary reinforcers Operant Conditioning punishment Operant Conditioning "Good" event Positive Reinforcement "Bad" event Behavior leads to event Punishment = Passive Avoidance Result: Increase in behav. Result: Decrease in behav. Example: "If you clean your Example: "If you say bad words, you'll be grounded" room, you'll get candy Negative Punishment = Omission Training Result: Decrease in behav. Example: "If you say bad words, you won't get any dessert" Negative Reinforcement = Escape Learning Result: Increase in behav. Example: "If you clean your room, you won't be grounded anymore" Behavior avoids the event Operant Conditioning Shaping establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it Chaining reinforcing single behaviors with the opportunity to engage in the next one Operant Conditioning Schedules of reinforcement rules or procedures for the delivery of reinforcement Fixed-Ratio Schedule Variable-Ratio Schedule Fixed-Interval Schedule Variable-Interval Schedule Operant Conditioning Fixed-Ratio Schedule Response rate is rapid & steady Example: getting $5 for every bucket of blueberries you pick Operant Conditioning Variable-Ratio Schedule Generates steady response rates Example gambling--slot machine Operant Conditioning Fixed-Interval Schedule Response rate usually plateaus after each reinforcement and respond again towards end of time interval Example: checking the mailbox Operant Conditioning Variable-Interval Schedule Response rate is slow but steady Example: checking your email Operant Conditioning Learning Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Social Learning Learning that results from observing the behaviors of others and from imagining the consequences of our own behavior Social Learning Albert Bandura Focus on observation, imitation, setting goals, & self-reinforcement Social Learning Modeling & Imitation "Bobo" doll Social Learning Vicarious Reinforcement & Punishment Example: Big companies put up stores in locations where small, independent ones have been successful Social Learning People imitate other's behavior only if they have a sense of self-efficacy Self-efficacy Social Learning Self-reinforcement & self-punishment Rewarding oneself for meeting goals & punishment for not Example: Rewards like TV or dessert ...
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