Chapter 2 - ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Chapter 1 & 2 Grade:...

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ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Chapter 1 & 2 Grade: Homework/exam 75% Lab 25% 1 Chapter 2 -
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2 Chapter 2 - hierarchy of bone structure Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2
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Structural hierarchy of crystalline solids Polycrystalline solid Single crystal Unit cells Atom 3 Chapter 2 - Most materials are polycrystalline with a grain size of about 100 μm Most materials are polycrystalline with a grain size of about 100 μm
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CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. • What promotes bonding? • What types of bonds are there? • What properties are inferred from bonding? 4 Chapter 2 -
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Atomic Structure (from Freshman Chemistry) •a t om electrons –9 . 1 1 x 1 0 -31 kg protons neutrons atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg 5 Chapter 2 -
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Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical 5) Magnetic 6 Chapter 2 -
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Bohr’s atomic model 7 Chapter 2 -
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Particle-like Wave-like 8 Chapter 2 -
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Electronic Structure • Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. – This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. – Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O ( n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (-l to +l) m s = spin ½, -½ 9 Chapter 2 -
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Electron Energy States • have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state (ground state). Electrons. .. 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 10 Chapter 2 -
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• Most elements: Electron configuration not stable reactive SURVEY OF ELEMENTS Electron configuration (stable) ...
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Chapter 2 - ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Chapter 1 & 2 Grade:...

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