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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Metal Alloys Applications and...

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Chapter 11: Metal Alloys Applications and Processing ISSUES TO ADDRESS... How are metal alloys classified and how are they used? What are some of the common fabrication techniques? How do properties vary throughout a piece of material that has been quenched, for example? How can properties be modified by post heat treatment? Chapter 11 - 1
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Cast Iron Chapter 11 - 2 Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt%C low melting (also brittle) so easy to cast Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite Fe 3 C Æ 3 Fe ( α ) + C (graphite) generally a slow process Fe 3 C cementite 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7 L γ austenite γ + L γ +Fe 3 C α ferrite α +Fe 3 C α + γ L +Fe 3 C δ (Fe) C o , wt% C Eutectic: Eutectoid: 0.76 4.30 727°C 1148°C T (°C)
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Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 90 L γ + L α + Graphite Liquid + Graphite (Fe) C o , wt% C 0.65 740°C T (°C) γ + Graphite 100 1153°C γ Austenite 4.2 wt% C α + γ Graphite formation promoted by Si > 1 wt% slow cooling Adapted from Fig. 11.2, Callister 7e . (Fig. 11.2 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) Chapter 11 - 3
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Types of Cast Iron Chapter 11 - 4 Adapted from Fig. 11.3(a) & (b), Callister 7e . Gray iron graphite flakes weak & brittle under tension stronger under compression excellent vibrational dampening wear resistant Ductile iron add Mg or Ce graphite in nodules not flakes matrix often pearlite - better ductility
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Types of Cast Iron Chapter 11 - 5 Adapted from Fig. 11.3(c) & (d), Callister 7e . White iron <1wt% Si so harder but brittle more cementite Malleable iron heat treat at 800-900ºC graphite in rosettes more ductile
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Steels Chapter 11 - 6 Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister 7e . Low Alloy High Alloy low carbon <0.25wt%C med carbon 0.25-0.6wt%C high carbon 0.6-1.4wt%C Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades pistons gears wear applic. wear appl. drills saws dies high T application turbines furnaces corrosion resistant Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304 Additions none Cr,V Ni, Mo none Cr, Ni Mo none Cr, V, Mo, W Cr, Ni, Mo plain HSLA plain heat treatable plain tool austenitic stainless Name Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ 0 TS - 0 + ++ + ++ 0 EL + + 0 - - -- ++ increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility
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