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philosophy notes2 - Week 3: "What in the World!":...

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-1Week 3: “What in the World!”: Metaphysics Pt. 1: Universals, Identity, & Plato I. Metaphysics Proper What is it and where did it come from? a. Definition i. In brief, metaphysics is the study of _reality______ ii. So if physics is the study of the things of nature, then metaphysics is the study of the ___nature________ of things b. History i. Aristotle wrote a collection of works called Physics (today, ‘science’) ii. Posthumously, another collection of his works, which came after his work Physics, was given the name Metaphysics (i.e., ‘after the Physics’ or ‘above the physics’) II. Projects in Metaphysics a. The Problem of Universals: this project involves looking at the existence of ___properties__________ (do they exist?) and the ____nature_________ of properties (what are they?) i. Properties: __qualities___________ that an object (being, thing, or idea) can have 1. Ex. shape (roundness), texture (roughness), taste (being sour), height (being tall), color (being red), virtue (being generous, being honest, being clever) ii. ‘The problem of the one and the many’: the project of finding ___unity__________ in diversity, finding the unifying property among many objects; how do we unify _____objects________, classify _____sets________? (even the term university was set up to study metaphysics, world view, how things relate to one another, ect) How many words do you see? Ex 1. Red, Red, Blue [type / token] We have 2 word ___types_________, and 3 word ___tokens_________. Ex 2. Now, suppose we have cars which are colored red and blue… Red car, Red car, Blue car [instances / kinds] 3 __instances___ of cars; 2 ____kinds_____ of cars Kinds go with types, Instances go with tokens Ex 3. Three, 3, III, tres Ex 4. Snow is white, Schnee ist weiss Application: 1. universality: 2. meaning: is going to be able to express the same thing later even by different people in different situations Contrived sets / natural sets tQ: What grounds real natural sets? Ex 1. red cap, red apple, red car (the universal color red)
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2008 for the course PHIL 214 taught by Professor Park during the Spring '08 term at Biola University.

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philosophy notes2 - Week 3: "What in the World!":...

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