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philosophy week 5

philosophy week 5 - Epistemology Pt 1 Week 5"How Do You...

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Epistemology Pt 1 Week 5: “How Do You Know That? Epistemology Pt 1” Def. 'the theory of knowledge’ Loosely (and more clearly?): it’s the study of what we can know, how much we can know, how we can know at all 3 Types of Knowledge _ Propositional ________ Knowledge: knowing facts Knowledge by ____ Acquaintance ____________: knowing something or someone directly ____ Skill ________ Knowledge: know-how Ex 1: a film _ PK ___: actors, director, budget, release date, synopsis __ AK __: watching it, experiencing it __ SK __: how to make the film, direct the actors, etc. Ex 2: religion PK: knowing truths _ about ___________ the religion (Berkeley prof’s) AK: knowing God __ personally __________ (Believer) SK: knowing ____ how ________ to grow as a person of this religion (Biola prof’s or Biolans) Generally, philosophers when they using the term ‘knowledge,’ are referring to proposition knowledge 3 Components of Knowledge “Knowledge as justified true belief” All three are necessary but not sufficient for knowledge Belief : a thing must be ___ believed _________ before it can be known; if people _ accidentally ___________ ‘get things right’, we would not say they ‘know’ this or that (e.g., guessing right on a Scantron-based exam, guessing that Christianity is true, etc) Beliefs are a necessary component for knowledge but not a ____ sufficient ________ one Truth : a thing must be true before it can be known Knowledge must be based not on _ sincerity ___________ of belief (think cults) or ____ agreement ________ of community (think postmoderns) but on ____ truth ______! Two main theories of truth: Metaphysical (what is real?) theories: something is made true by ___ facts _______ about the world Ex: classical correspondence theory of truth Epistemic (How do we know?) theories : something is made true if we have the right ___ reasons _________ (justified) for believing the proposition Ex: coherence theory of truth Which of these two is a better theory? (Think: court cases) FACTS Objections to epistemic theories of truth: Justifiably believing a proposition’s being true and a proposition’s actually being true are two different things There are justified ___ false _________ beliefs (ex: Santa Claus is real; Bob stole my books) Classical correspondence theory of truth: a proposition is true just in case (i.e., if and only if) it corresponds to reality (e.g., it’s raining) Aristotle, “To say of what is ___ that _______ it is, and of what is not that it is not, this is __ not ________.” (Metaphysics)
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So to have knowledge, while both belief and truth are necessary, they are not necessarily sufficient Justification: To count as knowledge, things which are believed to be true and are in fact true must also be believed in the _____ the right kind of way __________________ (not by luck or guess) Ex: people who win the lottery or take lucky math guesses (984 x 2828 = 2,782,752) would not
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philosophy week 5 - Epistemology Pt 1 Week 5"How Do You...

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