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Unformatted text preview: Guide to Analogous Structures By Phillip Ge Fall 2005 UGSI for Erin Osborne Section 109 email@example.com HOW TO USE: Use this outline to get a rough idea of how different organisms within the animal kingdom have found different but often times analogous solutions to the same basic problem. Sometimes there are small and subtle differences between analogous structures and functions and so for some organ systems, there is no single exactly analogous structure. Dont blame Mike Meighan and Bio1A; blame evolution instead. Respiratory System Problem: Oxygen needs to be delivered to tissues and organs, carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the organism. Solution: The Bio1A Student:- The trachea divides into two bronchi, each of which leads into a lung. - Gas exchange occurs in tiny sacs in the lung called alveoli- Oxygen is carried in the blood by hemoglobin Other Organisms:- Vertebrata : some organisms have lungs , others have gills . Oxygen carried by hemoglobin - Echinodermata : gas exchange occurs in the dermal branchia - Cockroach : gases enter through spiracles and exchange occurs through tracheoles- Crayfish : gas exchange occurs through gills . Oxygen carried by hemocyanin- Clam : gas exchange occurs through ctenidia . Oxygen carried by hemocyanin- Earthworm : gas exchange occurs through skin . Oxygen carried by hemoglobin Gas Exchange Respiratory Pigment Cnidarians (hydra) Platyhelminthes (planaria) Annelida (earthworm) Skin Hemoglobin Mollusca (clam) Ctenidia Hemocyanin Arthropoda (cockroach) Spiracles Arthropoda (crayfish) Gills Hemocyanin Echinodermata (starfish) Dermal branchia (Subphylum) Vertebrata Lungs or Gills Hemoglobin Vertebrata (Biology 1A student) Lungs (specifically, the alveoli) Hemoglobin Circulatory System Problem: Nutrients and gases need to be delivered to the tissues and organs; wastes and gases need to be removed for disposal. Problem: Nutrients and gases need to be delivered to the tissues and organs; wastes and gases need to be removed for disposal....
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2008 for the course BIO 1al taught by Professor Pederson during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '08