Economic Effects of Immigration
In-Class Discussion • Is immigration good for America? • Is immigration good for South Africa? • What are the benefits of immigrant labor? • Who benefits in home/host country? • What are the downsides of immigrant labor? • Who loses in home/host country?
Immigrant Labor Competing Perspectives They take our jobs and eat our bread We get a productive member of the society for free (someone else trained and fed him/her for 18 years)
Are Low-Skill Poor Immigrants Bad in the Long Run? Major waves of poor low-skill immigrants to North America Poor, uneducated, funny looking, seemingly uncultured, often criticized for lowering wages, taking jobs and contaminating local superior culture • 1820-1870 – Irish • 1881-1920 – Italians, Easter Europeans, Chinese • 1935-1950 – refugees of WWII, many Jews In their times, perceived very much like Mexicans today 1889 cartoon stereotypes the Irish as unmixable in America's melting pot. A 1850s cartoon accusing the Irish and German immigrants of negatively affecting an election. More on immigrant stereotyping in the 19 th century:
1888 cartoon in Puck attacks businessmen for welcoming large numbers of low paid immigrants, leaving the American workingman unemployed, reproduced from James H. Dormon, "Ethnic Stereotyping in American Popular Culture: The Depiction of American Ethnics in the Cartoon Periodicals of the Gilded Age," Amerikastudien, 1985, Vol. 30 Issue 4, pp 489-507
Major Immigrant Recipient Countries
Where immigrants come from and where they settle down in the US US Immigration Stats • Total foreign-born population: 38M, about 12% of total population • Illegal Immigrants: 11.5M (about 28% of all immigrants), 90% from Latin America • Immigrants per year: Suggested readings: Immigration US, Wiki: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ Immigration_to_the_United_States Illegal Immigration in the US, Wiki: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ Illegal_immigration_to_the_United_States
Where is the immigrant:locals ratio the highest A.USA, Canada B. Mexico C. Australia, New Zealand D.Germany, UK E. Qatar, UAE, Kuwait *technically it’s Vatican (100%)
Immigration Effects: Immigrant (usually has a choice: stay or go) PRO • More opportunities (better jobs: either higher pay, or respect, or growth) • Opportunity to gain new experience • Opportunity to have unique (e.g., cultural, technical) knowledge • Often more freedom • Often higher standard of living • Adventure CON • Leaving behind friends and family • Often knowledge and experience inapplicable in host country; old achievements “expire” • Often low status; less rights • Often less job security; usually the first to go (to be gotten rid of) • Need to adjust to new environment; may be difficult • “No home” or “something’s missing” syndrome Typically, immigrants benefit – most immigrate freely, and they would not if they were not going for a better life.
Immigration Effects: Country of Origin (usually has no choice people migrate as they wish) PRO
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- Fall '08
- Immigration to the United States