CH.4 Asia and Colonial World Between the Wars

CH.4 Asia and Colonial World Between the Wars - The...

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The Challenge to Western Hegemony: The Colonial World Struggles for Independence Chapter 4
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The War Ends Armistice Day November 11, 1918 11 th hour, 11 th day of the 11 th month
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Casualties of W.W.I ENTENTE CENTRAL
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Europe at the End of the War Devastated both politically and economically Russia was still convulsed in civil war Austro-Hungarian Empire was dissolved Germany was in ruins and chaos German Kaiser abdicated Britain, France and Italy had lost its treasury and a generation of its youth Ottoman Empire had been reduced to the Anatolian Peninsula Buffeted by social movements Communism, socialism, democracy, self determination (nationalism)
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The Wilsonian Vision Saw W.W. I as the “war to end all wars” and the “war to make the world safe for democracy.” Wanted “peace without victory Enunciated 14 Points No secret treaties National self determination Freedom of the seas End to economic barriers Reduction of arms Resolution of imperial claims Creation of general association of nations (League of Nations)
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Treaty of Versailles Peace conference in Paris begins January 1919 Big four: David Lloyd George of Britain, Woodrow Wilson of U.S., George Clemenceau of France, Count Vittorio Orlando of Italy Germany given no role at Versailles Big four (three: France, Britain, Italy) wanted revenge for Germany’s precipitation of the war Germany was required to acknowledge their guilt Germany required to pay reparations (132 billion gold marks) Rhineland was to be demilitarized Germany army reduced to token force German navy reduced to insignificance German air force abolished Alsace-Lorraine given to France German African colonies taken In Europe former areas of Russia and Austro-Hungarian empires became independent countries In Africa, Middle East, and Asia former German colonies remained colonies but were given to Britain or France
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Diktat Blame Retribution and revenge Preservation of colonial empires outside of Europe European supremacy Principles Enshrined in the Treaty of Versailles
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EUROPE ON EVE OF W.W. I
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Reshaping Europe Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, Emperor abdicated New countries created out of Russian and Austro- Hungarian territory Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia (kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) Hungary Austria Estonia Latvia Lithuania Bulgaria’s sea coast given to Greece
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Reshaping Europe Germany Would be a republic Created weak parliamentary system called the Weimar Republic Austria Would be separated from Hungary Had small population of 8 million Economic viability in question Southern area given to Italy Would be a republic Must recognize the independence of its former European parts Hungary Was severely reduced in size, parts given to Czechoslovakia, Rumania, & Yugoslavia
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EUROPE AFTER W.W.I
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CH.4 Asia and Colonial World Between the Wars - The...

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