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Ch. 11 The Middle East Conflict and end of Cold War1

Ch. 11 The Middle East Conflict and end of Cold War1 - The...

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The Middle East From 1919 to 1990 THE CRUCIBLE OF CONFLICT AND THE END OF THE SOVIET EMPIRE
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The League of Nations Mandates Prior to W.W. I: Area of Palestine part of the Ottoman Empire W.W. I: Ottoman Empire ally of Germany was defeated in W.W. I Treaty of Versailles 1919 End W.W. I Empires of German, Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were dissolved New states created in Europe Mandates created in Middle East Areas of the Ottoman Empire were given to France and Britain with responsibility to guide them toward self government Borders artificially drawn
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The Palestinian Problem British Mandates in Middle East Egypt Palestine Iraq French Mandates in Middle East Syria Lebanon
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The Palestinian Problem Zionism: Theodor Herzl created movement Herzel lived at the end of the 19 th Century Observed growing anti-Semitism which was particularly evident during Dreyfus Affair Zionists in 1896 advocated return of the Jews to Palestine
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Balfour Declaration The Balfour Declaration on partitioning of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the of World War I Was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. The letter stated the position, agreed at a British Cabinet meeting on October 31, 1917, that the British government supported Zionist plans for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine, with the condition that nothing should be done which might prejudice the rights of existing communities there.
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The Palestinian Problem Britain and Palestine after W.W. II British responsibility for Palestine continued under the United Nations Exhausted financially by two World Wars Caught in the middle by increasing Jewish population and growing Moslem opposition 1947 Britain gave official notice to the United Nations that it was leaving U.S. Recognizes the State of Israel
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The Partition of Palestine United Nations and Palestine Voted to divide Palestine into two states: one Arab and one Jewish Arabs rejected the plan 1948 Jews announced the birth of Israel and the Arabs attacked The U.S. was the first nation to recognize the new state of Israel
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1948 WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
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Results of 1948 Arab– Israeli War The War for Independence Close to 1,000,000 Arabs fled their homes Jews conquered more territory than given by United Nations Hundreds of Jews who had survived the holocaust emigrated to Israel
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Arab—Israeli War 1956 Middle East War of 1956 Egypt had been given its independence from Britain Abdul Nasser had overthrown British installed monarch Needed funds for development Wanted to build Dam at Aswan Grabbed the Suez Canal which was still in the hands of Britain Britain, France and Israel invade Israel took the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip United States backed Egypt and forced Britain, France and Israel to withdraw
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Suez Canal & Red Sea
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