Lecture_1l - Lecture 1 Basic Concepts of Immunology Part 1...

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Lecture 1 – Basic Concepts of Immunology, Part 1 Dr. Jill Adler-Moore BIO499 - 01/23/08 Transcribed by: Amanda Goodrich Most of Immunology really started to come to the surface around the early 1900s o 1980 – Snell, Dausset, Benacerraf – Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) Without this, we would knot know too much about giving transplants o 1984 – Milstein, Kohler, Jerne – Monoclonal Antibodies One of the newest therapies we have Before they would inject Antigens (Ag) into horses, rabbits, goats..etc to get antibodies o 1991 – Thomas & Murray – Transplantation immunology Very important in medical mycology – many of the patients who get these fungal infections are patients who are immunosuppressed because they have been getting transplants Stem cell transplantation has really taken off since around 1991 With discovery of new drugs (e.g. cyclosporine) are able to suppress the immune system of the patient so they can tolerate the transplant Nonspecific Immune response – aka Innate Immune Response o Everything in the immune system that is ready to react – doesn’t have to be “educated” by and Ag o Without this, a person would be dead o Skin – very important – Ex: burn victims – biggest problem is infection – without skin to protect them against microbes coming in will die o Mucus Membranes – Very important! – constantly breathing things in through our noses and our mouths (air is not sterile!) – mucus membranes that line the respiratory & gastrointestinal tract will clear out a lot of the microbes and prevent them from attaching o Temp of Body – most microbes are not happy living at 37 ° C or above (fever), and most will not grow o pH – Our stomach is at a pH of ~ 1-2, most microbes cannot live at that pH o Chemical Mediators – lysozyme (in secretions in mouth), interferon (produced by innate immune cells), complement (macrophages) – all help clear out Ags in body o Phagocytes – eg. Blood monocytes, neutrophils, tissue macrophages - able to take in Ags and kill it o Endocytic cells – cells that line the blood vessels able to take in Ags o Inflammatory response – very important b/c inflammation tells immune system there has been damage to the body - up-regulates the whole innate immune system Problem sometimes doesn’t know when to shut off – eg. Septic shock, immune reconstitution syndrome o How innate immune response functions at cellular level – microbe gets into the body by penetrating mucosa or skin microbe will multiply in the body, and possibly produce a toxin (e.g. diphtheria, botulinum) 1 st body will neutralize the toxin with
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antibodies (adaptive immune resp) body will activate complement C3b is “sticky” part of complement that will stick to the microbe
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