Human_Genetics_Molecular_Ti_Yung_Hwa - Ti Yung Hwa...

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Ti Yung Hwa [email protected] Feb 27 2008 Human Genetics: Molecular Speaker: Pat Arndt, MS, MT(ASCP)SBB Senior Research Associate American Red Cross Blood Services Southern California Region Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Stores genetic information Transmit information through mitosis and meiosis to subsequent generations Provide a blueprint for production of proteins Made out of 5 elements: Carbon, Phosphate, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen Discovered 1871, 6 years after Mendel discovered hereditary traits (1865) Single unit of DNA: nucleotide which is made out of phosphate groups, sugar and base. 5 different types of bases; Thymine, Cytosine (Pyrimidines) and Adenine, Guanine (Purines) A single stranded DNA is held together by phosphodiester bonds between 2 nucleotides while a double stranded DNA is held together by complementary base pairing between nucleotides forming hydrogen bonds Packaging of DNA in eukaryotes DNA winds around histones to form nucleosome which provide DNA compaction and control gene expression. Repeating units of nucleosomes form chromatin structure and eventually to the chromosome structure. DNA undergoes replication, transcription and translation in cells DNA Replication Occurs during mitosis and meiosis. Double stranded DNA produced is semiconservative (one strand new, the other old). Process consists of the separation of double strands followed by addition of new nucleotides by DNA Polymerase. Synthesis of new DNA strands has directionality 5’ 3’ Transcription DNA copied into messenger RNA as an intermediary for production of proteins Double stranded DNA separated and RNA Polymerase adds RNA bases which binds to DNA complimentarily. In eukaryotes, mRNA editing occurs where a transcript is edited (introns and exons spliced out and addition of 5’-7methylguanine cap and 3’ poly-A tail) Editing leads to genetic variability because different proteins can be produced.
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