122ch11a_002 - As-the temperature of a substance is...

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Unformatted text preview: As-the temperature of a substance is increased. the average kinetic energy of the particles " increases. In a collection of particles (molecules), the state is determined by the strength of interparticle forces relativehto the average kinetic energy of the particles. As the average " " kinetic energy increases. more particles are able to overcome intermolecular attractive -- -- - forces and move to a less ordered state. from solid to liquid to gas. L“ z! ' ' k ' “2 F _______ ‘ / I ,2 Mme .v....;z¢44'._2 MM: . I - -———-_-- aflJL W W LA 11/ I. ‘- .- AfiA/. {III/1'1 l J / 4 "iIkA. liffj. . :j/f 1/ . [A . ( _.' ' ' .1 f I, I 5-,- III/1“"- I-r .. ———""'> I I /,.- -.___ fl. If] 1/3,!" 1 [.1fl/ If I _ ‘ - . t 4 _’ ‘ _. _- I I '. .. .4 I r ' I‘ .1 u 4% “(J/2:41!) fit as 1-1'Jl..4m,.-‘-vf " -4“. z’ I ' ' '... I / ('1 _ I ___ _ Add. _____ _. m [0 ME ._:'_'__'_m¢.._a; . z‘ .2274» . 7 ' g . MW flaw/LAM .. ’ 5‘ ' I _ ‘ - __ —_ / H._.,.__ _.-...-..__w_—_fi_.____n.__m;_.__—. _% Wzmfigfififiamgflwr Egg/,7) _ ' " “'“mj‘jf ’. . WMWW“; z] fl fl _ Stirface tensien\(6ection_ 11.3), high boiling point (relative to H28, H230, H2Te, Figure 11.7), I ' um“ high heat capacity per gram. high enthalpy of vaporization;_t_he solid is less dense than the _ liquid: it is a liquid at room temperature despite is low molar mass. . Xm' A4. 511%, ;,,;;:f:_. I '.:_._.:.'_ L___:_.__f _._;nfiAEg-é?‘ $1934"-ZEEQZMJQMfegfl_; _:w ' """ m ._; 2%;49/ rm794::;};4242§dfi225;é2___._._ 4. wad/51 _._ ____ -__ M m.” yw%fi%_éflhkz%_ I '1 "LI/4"} 1. 1414/51 é é zéc: i Z a _._ _ 'I—u—._ 1 I .25”; ’ . //.—-..r_' .- -’_ ’2 I / "4 ' - . ' / F . ' ' i. . ' 1 c 4,: 7 x“. ..... m: Ethanol.'moleculesexperience hydrogen bonding. a stronger intermolecular force than the weak dipole-dipole forces between ether molecules. The stronger forces between ethanol molecules make the liquid more resistant to flow arid thus more __ ________ The surface tension of water is quite strong. If the flat surface of the steel razor _ a blade is placed parallel to the surface of the water, the downward force of gravity MP” is dispersed over a relatively large area and is not sufficient to separate the water ___ molecules at the surface of the liquid. ' m_fl______ éfig 49*; a -W/’ -.;_ .4 M 4;!- __I' __ __e_ _ I ,2 a l ' - ' . .- -: __ ___ ___” 7; M e z I _ ___11/ I I (1 ‘.w_fi__H_ (I 1'2" (/1’ h’ ” an“ 11/} "' - ‘ 427) gTZgé (2' r 349 :gmééwZ—ZZES' 7% @125“ 14,2} 7r. ._:::_ _%JM.WE._W_lfifgw2{2_£[email protected]é_w... . ..._...___T_____ _ The heat energy required to increase the kinetic energy of molecules enough to melt the solid does not produce a large separation of molecules. The specific order _ __ _____M _ Lh*_ is disrupted. but the molecules remain close together. 0n the other hand. whena liquid is vaporized. the intermolecular forces which maintain close molecular contacts must be overcome. Because molecules are being separated. the energy ' * ' requirement is higher than for melting. ._________ g . / . 72’ a ./ / Jag/4'" -’ .1, £1"? ‘. 4, CI. l " [113/ -’ " [W111 s—v / 5 .4 *x Cue-’2 . e/e ---;/;.r _..__.__.____.__.5-r ‘c ’ “ 4(141' #1’ I l. ".4 I /‘ I ‘ wc___ § Wme Av (@145? 1%! 45:? y'a- J-i ... ..__. ._ saéxm , —‘—= ,m . g a M MW : {per/fife , ...
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