122ch13d_002

122ch13d_002 - :— ' [(2305 ‘02" = 7;;W + 4 a:...

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Unformatted text preview: :— ' [(2305 ‘02" = 7;;W + 4 a: ..... __ 7;”; é /, 9296. +49%; c: 5mg? o ’ _ é a I v ,/ _"’ " ' "" #251,, zgm; 3/flwzp/gmkmégfldaimé fifl'ZKflfW > aflmfl/fiéwzg >flfl7ifl4‘fr . “ 3.5 r1 2 '41 I I __ fl _ x . . _ " ,1. _ a A ;/D' (It, -" »’ 1’ .7” I 7": .'¢ 3/7 I I V / / _ I aim _ , 4 1»; 111 / ‘. 27m I] b v — “— ' I - ' .- _ — ’ I I . ’J _/ _ .4421}! I /I ‘I g {I I I ‘1'. ‘1 _./l,’4'. . _> - I " 4 ' , > . I ‘ - ,x’ ‘ ( I L411 ’ -4414 / 14 a ./. .’ IVC W_ / ‘ I * _ w a" 4/14.» fli‘ . 50.41, . . -—_._ (Ag/1' / ' l / .. - . ‘ / / —‘-—’—m—lfibfi I .an. ,14 / ‘1’4 4’4‘4. ll ’ - > 4(4 14/1‘1- x». wax/AM / _",The deviations from ideal behavior are due to ionjgairing in the two electrolyteSQIUfions. "' - K230.1 has more extensive ion poking end a larger deviation from ideality because of the '- ' highe; chage on 803' relative to Cl“. 566 [7 a Attractive forces boMeen ions in electrolyte solutions lead to ion-pairing. which reduces effective number of particles in solution. Fewer effective particles in solution leads to smaller AT, and ATb values. higher freezing points and lower boiling points than predicted for ideal 'solufions. " Lié D The outline of a light beam passing through a colloid is visible, whereas fight passing through "a try; solution is unless collected on a screen. This is the Tyndall effect. To _.determine whether Faraday's (or anyone's) apparently homogeneous dispersion is a true solution or a colloid, shine a beam of light on it and see if the light is scattered. I - ' (J: -F AMI; gmkm/ ,*;L ,5 a mag/d, ) -—-'l _....-_. .Q m _ .. .. __ __;93._.__./4__M..&-+___l._.____.,_a_..__m __.____*_./0fl €_£W/m‘e 542:8 $._.zg_40_0__x{m__w______.____w_m _ W _ - - I w. _.m_u+;§{giéafié_ _. . '_ . __ __1 When the colioidpa'rticle mass becomes large enough so that gravitational and ___ _ _ __ interparticle attractive forces are greater than the kinetic energies of the particles. u settling and aggregation can occur. ' " Hydrophobic coiloids'do not attract a sheath of 'water molecules around them and ’ m ' '— ' thus tend to aggregate from aqueous solution. They can be stabilized as colloids by " “ww- adsorbing charges on their surfaces. The charged particles interact with solvent *' - --————- -- ~_water, stabilizing the colloid. -- -- "if—WW“ _:_ _;______L_ : ’— fm gig/@0144 :f" , ' _;_:'._.';'.Lf_ _ ‘ZLL Charges on colloid particles can stabilize them against aggregatidn. Particles - ______ _, carrying like charges repel one another and are thus prevented from aggregating and ' settling out. ' 7 The outer periphery of the BHT molecule is mostly hydrocarbon-like groups, such as -CH3. The one -OH group is rather buried inside. and probably does little to enhance solubility in water. Thus, BHT is more likely to be soluble in the nonpolar hydrocarbon hexane. 05H“, than in polar water'. cu; ___ _ _ _w_ “___- ' __ CIH3 - __ N ___ ___ _"__M_ _ Hechcl- C1—C3: _-_.__ _ _____, ______ ___ CH3 0H CH: ._ flgXQéwyg/w 3. .. _.._ - _ I /, (fa/1a 253 ~ 2;: Mam . 79% 3' magma: 73W fizz/1%. ngfids Paaéfi g/Mvcz‘. . W A 0057/ 12675.?“ WZéggé. L?- 731%-;ammxgr "/4 1:44!” 4'3??— % "M W: ~ I I M2 3 x/w "hm‘ 2/ N "Mfr I _ m- £39,, L _ .. fl JM f“ 525; ix; 1/2 " ' ’4'?» __. m 7 I“: fly) I - “i' m 29% :MMW QZM ' 3 2.2% M -“ stonzzML/A ‘fl' 144452121 -_._ “rag W afgfléz/gzzfg 9L;on ) 7- , _ - . : ~~ . ~ ---- -- WA %4< 60L: Mam/1419 X -4 Afféj ; 43x ....... __ Z; @w —— gaggfifrm. gag; 9:549. 4;; 1/432]: » / .. z Aa- J » ’ ,/ / 2. u ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course CHEM 122 taught by Professor Zellmer during the Summer '07 term at Ohio State.

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122ch13d_002 - :— ' [(2305 ‘02" = 7;;W + 4 a:...

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