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122ch11d_001 - [1'29:”> Hum/kiflfl_flétéfgé[email protected]

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Unformatted text preview: [1 '29:”. :> ' :_::_. Hum/kiflfl_flétéfgé[email protected] £____. _ . WWW__._.._______w_afi_§>___jaggLf/Efié§) N F 7 __ w ,AMWWAA “WWW.”M,.___.7.._____.k .._.752%m Wag)- _ .. .._____.__ Kg;wa 414w "érfirflryer AV? _ fj ' While boiling points are primarily a measure of strength of intermolecular forces. melting points are influenced by crystal packing efficiency 'as well as'intermolecular forces. Since the nonpoiar trans isomer with weaker intermolecular forces has':the ' higher melting point, it rnust pack more efficiently. _ ' m" W! XE $-63- "$4_é_l’_éfl//f._ ._____. m. M m___g%4zaz_ __/§a¢z,@g_. :[éwgr a 76) WA 7 ” "fl: 52 . " f) _______ _ fi/gs 14F éféogr VJ? Ate-fag; errng _ m-.. ____ e .... __ J]; 832 When a hlogen atom (CI or Br) is substituted for H in benzene, the molecule becomes polar. A..." . ,_____ __w__ These moichiEs experience dispersion forces similar to those in'benzene plus dipole-dipole _ ________ __ _ forces. so they have higher boiling points than benzene. CeHsBr has a higher molar mass and m ___________ is more polarizable than CGHSCI so it has the higher boiling point. CSH50H experiences _ hydrogen bonding. the strongest force between neutral molecules. so it has the highest boiling _ point. . @ M 2 Propylamine experiences hydrogen bonding interactions-while trimethylamine, with no N-H - bonds, does‘not. Also, the rod-iike shape of propylamine (see Exercise 11.15) leads to stronger dispersion forces than in trimethylamine. The stronger intermolecular" forces in" propyiamine lead to the lower vapor pressure. 47 a . _ / 3 jjéw: 0% 1 “ w 3 9'1 [K5 [Fe/My Z AXe/I/ ail/5‘32“ ad 2224 Q @5221 m m5 w L: — mm 0%: 16‘7" ._Mfi’élThe greater dipole moment of HCI (1.08 D vs 0.82 D for HBr) indicates that It wltl - - - - gem . _expenence greater dipole-dipole forces. (We r E” m gr _ ' The longer bond length in HBr (1.41 A vs 1.27 A for HCI) indicates a more diffuse and _ ' "therefore more polarizable electron cloud in HBr. It experiences stronger London "— 1 “‘“"""""_" dispersion forces. (24671" 4.4 éryjtr . 19/03 ‘1‘“ WW 57W”??? U: ‘ """""" " For molecules with similar structures. the compound with the higher Mug point ______ ._fi experiences stronger intermolecular forces. Since HBr has the higher boiling point. ._ ._WMweeker dipole-dipole forces but [stronger dispersion forces, disper'gorb forces must ‘ ' A mam/‘3 /' - . mm____u_determrne the boiling point. {m 7%: W 0 £701“ )Mflgfi EH9": I ____l_ ___ m If experience-25mg“ Ming. a much stronger force than the dipole-dipole and L I a ' dispersigfl forges operating in the other hydrogen halides. which results in the high ' ”“—'—‘—— “mm boiling min 1;. _ . v with the longest bond length and greatest in the serieS. has the ~———-—- -—~ ------- ~-—~— strongest disgrsion forces and highest boiling point of the cornpounds that gem I __...-_ .... .__. .__ W Mn bonding. ' _ . . “f"if-€f2:./c2fif7 _____ _Q_ _ I 3A)” " _ __ Q [ex/4,49 >6 Far v??- ...
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