Lesson 3 - Nutrients - Note - Nutrients Lesson 3 Intro...

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Nutrients - Lesson 3 Intro Compounds that contain carbon are called organic compounds Functional groups Hydroxyl Alcohols Carbonyl Aldehydes Ketones Carboxyl Carboxylic Acids Amino Amines Sulfhydryl Thiols Phosphate Organic Phosphates These functional groups are hydrophilic (attracted to water) and increases the solubility of the molecules Biological Macromolecules - are large molecules that are made up of smaller units called monomers In order to form these, the water must be removed via a condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction
In order to break these, the water is used via a hydrolysis reaction, breaking the molecule into its monomers This takes place with the help of enzymes which are protein catalysts that speed up reactions Carbohydrates - used as building materials for energy, cell identification and communication. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Classified into 3 groups: 1. Monosaccharides 2. Oligosaccharides 3. Polysaccharides Monosaccharide - means one sugar They are simple chains that form rings when dissolved in water There are two types of monosaccharides 1. Aldoes 2. Ketoses Aldoses - all carbons have hydroxyl groups attached except the last carbon which has a carbonyl group attached Ex. Ribose, Glucose, and Galactose Ketoses - all carbons have hydroxyl groups attached except a central carbon has a carbonyl group attached Ex. Ribulose and Fructose When dissolved in water sugars with five or more carbons form ring structures (ex. glucose) When dry they form linear structures Alpha glucose that its carbonyl hydroxyl group in the down position and beta glucose has its hydroxyl group in the up position Most important monosaccharides are glucose, galactose, and fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 Oligosaccharides - means many sugars Contains two or three simple sugars attached by covalent bonds called glycosidic linkages these are formed by dehydration synthesis reactions Form disaccharides such as lactose, maltose, and sucrose Equations for the formation of the above disaccharides are: Glucose + glucose → maltose + water Glucose + fructose → sucrose + water Glucose + galactose → lactose + water

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