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SOCL 4401 THE FAMILY FINAL EXAM NOTES April 25, 2016Chapters 9, 10, 11, & 12Chapter 9: Families and Children Childbearing in the U.S. oMost families have 1 to 3 children (average 2) oFamily Size has been in decline but diversity has increased More parents raising kids outside of marriage together More single motherhood Childbearing: Trends CohabitingoAbout a third of unmarried parents are actually living together (cohabiting) at the time of birth More Than Two ParentsoWhile fewer parents are married now than in the past, many children are involved with more than two parents Women Without Children oThe number of women reaching age 45 without having any children has doubled since the 1980’sChildbearing: Terms and Concepts oFertility The number of children born in a society or among a particular group oTotal Fertility Rate The number of children born to the average woman in her lifetimeChildbearing Trends: Unmarried ParentsoYoung adults with children who are not ready or willing to marry oSingle older women who decide to have children oDivorced adults with children oGay and lesbian couples, with children, who are not marriedChildbearing: Race and Ethnicity Childbearing: Education oOpportunity Costs oThe price one pays for choosing the less lucrative of available optionsAdoption 2.1 % US children adopted 37% are adopted through the foster care system; 1
38% are U.S. born and adopted through private services 25% are born in other countries and adopted by U.S. parents Children’s Living Arrangements: Inequality African-American children experiencing more rapid shift toward single mother families than children in other racial-ethnic groupsSingle-mother families have fewer resources, lower incomes, and more likely experience disruption in living arrangementsChildren’s Living Arrangements: Transitions Transitions within family, good or bad, can have long-lasting impacts on childrenChildren living in cohabiting parent households may experience multiple transitions in family compositionThere is an increase in multigenerational households because of shifting economic conditions Parenting: Competition and Insecurity Modern parenting in the United State Is increasingly reflecting competition and insecurity oBecause modern parents have fewer children, they invest more per child than in the past oParents have increasing anxiety about the job they are doing and the quality of their parentingIntensive Motherhood Cultural pressure on women to devote more time, energy, and money to raising their children (this cultural pressure increased as the employment rates for women increased. Fatherhood Dad’s matter for child development, too! Research has only grown within the last decades Major shift in attitudes of what makes a “good father”Parenting: Male Provider Ideal Fatherhood oMale Provider IdealThe father as an economic provider and authority figure for hischildrenoInvolved Father Ideal oThe father as an emotional, nurturing, companion who bonds with his children as well as providing for them oChapter 10: Divorce, Remarriage, and Blended Families 2