SOCL 4401 THE FAMILY FINAL EXAM NOTES April 25, 2016 Chapters 9, 10, 11, & 12 Chapter 9: Families and Children Childbearing in the U.S. o Most families have 1 to 3 children (average 2) o Family Size has been in decline but diversity has increased More parents raising kids outside of marriage together More single motherhood Childbearing: Trends Cohabiting o About a third of unmarried parents are actually living together (cohabiting) at the time of birth More Than Two Parents o While fewer parents are married now than in the past, many children are involved with more than two parents Women Without Children o The number of women reaching age 45 without having any children has doubled since the 1980’s Childbearing: Terms and Concepts o Fertility The number of children born in a society or among a particular group o Total Fertility Rate The number of children born to the average woman in her lifetime Childbearing Trends: Unmarried Parents o Young adults with children who are not ready or willing to marry o Single older women who decide to have children o Divorced adults with children o Gay and lesbian couples, with children, who are not married Childbearing: Race and Ethnicity Childbearing: Education o Opportunity Costs o The price one pays for choosing the less lucrative of available options Adoption 2.1 % US children adopted 37% are adopted through the foster care system; 1
38% are U.S. born and adopted through private services 25% are born in other countries and adopted by U.S. parents Children’s Living Arrangements: Inequality African-American children experiencing more rapid shift toward single mother families than children in other racial-ethnic groups Single-mother families have fewer resources, lower incomes, and more likely experience disruption in living arrangements Children’s Living Arrangements: Transitions Transitions within family, good or bad, can have long-lasting impacts on children Children living in cohabiting parent households may experience multiple transitions in family composition There is an increase in multigenerational households because of shifting economic conditions Parenting: Competition and Insecurity Modern parenting in the United State Is increasingly reflecting competition and insecurity o Because modern parents have fewer children, they invest more per child than in the past o Parents have increasing anxiety about the job they are doing and the quality of their parenting Intensive Motherhood Cultural pressure on women to devote more time, energy, and money to raising their children (this cultural pressure increased as the employment rates for women increased. Fatherhood Dad’s matter for child development, too! Research has only grown within the last decades Major shift in attitudes of what makes a “good father” Parenting: Male Provider Ideal Fatherhood o Male Provider Ideal The father as an economic provider and authority figure for his children o Involved Father Ideal o The father as an emotional, nurturing, companion who bonds with his children as well as providing for them o Chapter 10: Divorce, Remarriage, and Blended Families 2
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- Fall '08