Ryu\u0304saku Tsunoda Sources of Japanese tradition, Volume 1 - INTRODUCTION TO ORIENTAL CIVILIZATIONS Wm Theodore deBary E DITOR Sources of Japanese

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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO ORIENTAL CIVILIZATIONS Wm. Theodore deBary, E DITOR Sources of Japanese Cfradition VOLUME I Compiled by RYUSAKU TSUNODA WM. THE ODORE DE BARY DONALD KEE N E SOURCES OF /APANESE TRADITION VOLUME I INTRODUCTION TO ORIENTAL CIVILIZATIONS WM. THEODORE DE BARY, EDITOR Sources of Japanese 'Tradition VOLUME I COMPILE D BY Ryusaku Cfsunoda W m. Cfheodore de Bary Donald Keene COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS New York The addition to the "Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies" of a group of translations of Oriental historical materials in a clothbound edition, from which this volume is taken, was made possible by funds granted by Carnegie Corporation of New York. That Corporation is not, however, the author, owner, publisher, or proprietor of this publication, and is not to be understood as approving by virtue of its grant any of the statements made or views expressed therein. UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, J APANESE SERIES This work has been accepted in the Japanese Translation Series of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organ­ ization { UNESCO ). ISBN o-23 I - o8 6o4 - o COPYRIGHT © 1958 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS Text edition in two volumes published 1964 Printed in the United States of America p 20 19 18 PREFACE This b oo k , representing part o f a series dealing wit h the civilizations o f Japan, Chi na, India, and Pa k istan, contai ns source readi ngs that tell us what the Japanese have thought about themselves, the world they lived in, and the pro b lems they faced living together. It is meant to provide the general reader with an understanding o f the b ac k ground o f contemporary Japanese civilization, especially as this is re fl ected in intellectual traditions which remain alive today . Thus, much attention is given to religious an d philosophical developments in early times that are still part o f the national heritage and a ffect people's thin k ing today . On the other hand, equal atten­ tion is given to political and social questions which the ordinary history o f philosophy or religion would not treat. Also, since the arts o f Japan have such a unique importance in the modern world-indeed, are the embodi­ ment o f Japanese civilization to many-there must be a place for the dis­ cussion o f Japanese aesthetics. There fore we have not hesitated to ma k e excursions into the fi elds o f literature and dramatic art, j ust as readily as i nto politics or economics, even though we could not hope to take f ull stoc k o f the riches in eac h o f these domains. Perhaps the greatest danger which b esets the Western reader's attempt to understand Japanese civilization is the temptation to ta k e one or another o f its more stri k ing aspects as representing the whole. There might b e no great harm in this i f, fi nding one gateway to Japanese culture especially i nviti ng and congenial, through this he gained access to others in turn. But much that is popularly written a bout the Japanese (in particular, about "Japan Today") re flects the particular concerns o f the moment, and these concerns shi ft so rapidly that the popular image o f Japan is li k ely to b e­ come con fused. A sense o f baffiement or f rustration may result, and the Westerner will then ta k e what consolation he can fi nd in the idea that Orientals are, a fter all, inscrutable. Just be fore and during the Second [vI World War, for instance, it was nationalism and militarism that served as the common theme o f books a bout Japan, and one got the impression t h at t h e more engaging aspects of Japanese culture were no more than a mas k for the underlying fanaticism and b rutality which characterized these people. Not only did this one-sided view of the Japanese handicap Americans in their dealings with t h em a f ter the war, b y engendering suspicion or condescension, but also it produced in many persons a sense o f h aving b een duped when at last the fi ner aspects of Japanese character and culture were b rought in upon t h em. Now, thirteen years a fter the surrender, there is danger in another kind o f distortion, which sees nothing_ in Japan b ut its exoticism, aestheticism, and mysticism. Ob viously, then, t h e fi rst requirement o f a book such as this must be to achieve balance and perspective. It is unlikely that we have succeeded i n this h ere, b ut, knowi ng our aim, the critical reader w i l l at least under­ stand w h y we h ave b een tempted to spread ourselves so thi n over the length and b readth o f Japanese history and civilization, and have ven­ tured to deal in a summary way with su b j ects that still call for much more intensive study and analysis. The fact is that we do not seek to identi fy causal factors in Japanese history, b ut merely to suggest the range and variety o f Japanese thought, and some o f the circumstances which called forth or conditioned these expressions o f the Japanese mind. Considering the strangeness o f the setting and the complexity of some su bjects not readily presenta ble in translation, we h ave found it necessary to include far more h istorical and explanatory material than usual in a set of source readings. Nevertheless t h e reader un familiar with Japanese history who seeks a f uller knowledge o f historical and institutional b ackground will do well to supplement this text by re ference to a general or cultural history. At the same time, given the limitations o f an introductory text, we could not hope to deal with every thinker or movement o f importance, b ut have had to select those examples which b est illustrated the relation of divergent currents to the main stream o f Japanese thought, and the rele­ vance o f intellectual attitudes to the most persistent pro b lems o f Japanese society. In the modern period the necessity for this is most apparent. We h ave ignored, f or instance, some o f the more stri k ing examples o f Western in fl uence in favor of ot h ers which better demonstrate the adaptation or incorporation o f Western attitudes in writers standing nearer the center o f t h ings. For muc h t h e same reason, in d ealing with recent trends, we h ave focused attention on persons active in pub lic li fe or organized political movements, close to the great events o f their time, rather t h an upon intellectuals in the narrow sense, whose ultimate in fl uence can only b e conj ectured with d i fficulty at suc h s hort range. T hese readings were originally b ased on a series o f essays and transla­ tions prepared b y Ryusaku Tsunoda, for many years Curator of t he Japa­ nese Collection at Columb ia University and lecturer on Japanese religion and thought. T h ey h ave since been considerab ly supplemented, revised, and adapted for use in the general education program o f Colum b ia Col­ lege. Consequently, though Mr. Tsunoda's efforts contri b uted su b stantially to the work, the editor and not h e must be h eld responsib le for the contents and for any errors o f f act or interpretation which t h ey contain. Ob viously, a proj ect o f t h is magnitude could not have b een b rough t to completion without the colla boration o f ot hers possessing special quali fi cations. Donald Keene h as h elpe d especially with t he c h apters on Japanese aesthetics and poetry, t h e S h into revival, th e su b -section on Honda Toshiaki, a n d the fi nal chapter, w h ile also assisting i n the editing o f C h apters I-IX. It is also a pleasure to ac k nowledge our gratitude to colleagues in sister insti­ tutions f rom whose special k nowledge of trends in modern Japanese h is­ tory and thoug h t we have greatly bene fi ted in t he preparation o f C h ap­ ters XXIV-XXIX, in Volume II : Marius Jansen o f t h e University o f Washington at Seattle, who contri b uted the c h apter on ultranationalism ; Arthur Tiedemann o f the College o f the City o f New York, for the chapter on modern li b eralism ; an d Hyman Ku b lin o f Brook lyn College, for the chapter on the Japanese social movement. Here again, since certain changes and additions h ave had to b e made in adapting these contri b utions to t h e general plan o f the work, fi nal responsi b ility for them must rest wit h the editor. In the preparation o f the entire manu­ script for the press, and of several translations appearing in Chapters XV-XXI, and Ch apters XXII-XXIX, in Volume II, Hersc h el Webb has been o f great h elp in the fi nal stages o f this proj ect. He has also prepared the c h ronological ta b les. Among the more speci fi c contri butions ma de b y individuals h ere an d in Japan, th at of Pro fessor A b e Masao, a Rocke feller fellow at Colum­ b ia University an d Union Th eological Seminary, must b e noted for the great care an d time w h ich he devoted to problems encountered in transla­ tions from The Problem of Japanese Culture by Nishida Kitaro. Dr. [vii ] Kosaka Masaaki, Dean of t h e Faculty of Education, Kyoto University, and a leading authority on Nis h ida's philosop h y, has also b een most gra­ cious wit h h is advice. For h elp in selecting and obtaining key docu·· ments for C h apter XXVIII in Volume II we are indeb ted to Dr. Tsuru Sh igeto, Visiting Pro fessor at Harvard University ; Dr. George 0. Totten of t h e Fletc h er Sc hool o f Law and Diplomacy, Tu fts University ; and Mr. Oka Sumio. Dr. Totten, in particular, was most generous with h is time, effort and special k nowledge o f t he Japanese social movement, and con­ tributed the translations from A b e lsoo and Kawai Eij iro. Mr. Jo h n F. Howes was responsib le for t h e initial selection o f readings from Uc h imura Kanzo in t h e same c h apter, and for b ackground material used in t he introduction. In the early p h ases o f t he project Dr. Minoru Shinoda, now o f th e University of Hawaii, was a valued assistant to Mr. Tsunoda in t h e work of translation. Dr. Jansen also wishes to acknowledge the help given him by William Na ff and No boru Hiraga in prepari ng Chapter XXVII in Volume II. Others to whom we are also indebted are Pro fessor W. T. Chan o f Dartmout h College ; Pro fessors C h i-chen Wang, Andrew Yarrow, and Royal Weiler o f Columbia ; Dr. Burton Watson, Cutting Traveling Fellow in Columbia University, 1 956-57 ; Pro fessor Roger Hac kett o f Nort h western University ; Pro fessor William G. Beasley o f t he University o f London ; Dr. Ro b ert Scalapino o f t he University o f Cali­ fornia, Berkeley ; Rev. J. J. Spae, C .I .C.M . ; Mrs. Lien-che Tu Fang ; Mr. Ric h ard De Martino ; Douglas Overton and Eugene Langston o f t he Japan Society of New York ; and Mr. Howard Linton and the sta ff o f t h e East Asiatic Library, Columbia University. In the early stages o f compiling t h ese readings, Nancy S herman, Myrtle Hallam, and especially Miwa Kai rendered important services to t he editor. To Eileen J . Boecklen t h an k s must go for h er conscientious and capa b le work in preparing the manuscript for publication. Acknowledgment s h ould also be made o f h er special contribution in the form o f map making. Charles M. Saito h andled with great s k ill the exacting assignment o f preparing t h e chapter decorations. Lastly, Joan McQuary rendered the fi nal editing process a far more pleasant experience than one would have t hought possible. T h is series o f readings has b een produced in connection with t he Colum b ia College General Education Program in Oriental Studies, w h ich h as b een encouraged and supported b y the Carnegie Corporation o f New York . For w hatever value it may h ave to the general reader or college l v iii ·1 student seek ing a li b eral ed ucation t h at em b races both the East an d West, a great deb t is owed to Dean Emeritus Harry J. Carman, Pro fessor James Gutmann, an d Dean Lawrence H. Cham berlain o f Columb ia College. Their foresight an d leadership are responsi b le for the progress that has b een ma de towar d reaching a goal long sought by mem bers o f th e Colum b ia College f aculty. Those who have joined in the preparation o f this b oo k k now that it is only a beginning to the work that lies ahea d, b ut it is o ffered nonetheless in tri b ute to the scholars and teachers w h o have set us on the roa d . WM. THEODORE DEBARY Columbia College New York City February, 1958 [ ix 1 EXPLANA T O RY NO TE In the pronunCiation o f Japanese words or names, the consonants are read as in English (wit h "g" always hard) and the vowels as in Italian. There are no silent letters. The name Ab e, for instance, is pronounced "Ah-bay ." The long vowels "6" and "ii" are indicated except in the names o f cities alrea � y well k nown in t h e West, such as To k yo and Kyoto. All romanized terms have been standardized according to the Hepburn system for Japanese, the Wade-Giles for Chinese, and the McCune-Reischauer for Korean. Chinese philosophical terms used i n Japanese texts are given i n their Japanese readings (e.g., ri instead of /i for "principle," "reason") except where attention is speci fi cally drawn to t h e C h inese original. Sans k rit words appearing in italics, suc h as technical terms or titles, are rendered in accordance with the standard system o f transliteration as found i n Louis Renou's Grammaire Sanskrite ( Paris, 1 930) , pp. xi-xiii. Other Sans k rit terms a n d names appearing in roman letters are rendered according to the usage of Webster's New International Dictionary, 2d edition Una b ridged, except that here the macron is used to indicate long vowels and the Sans k rit symbols for s (�) and � are uni formly transcribed " s h ." Personal names have also b een spelled in this manner except when they occur in the titles of wor k s. Japanese names are rendered here in their Japanese order, with t h e family name fi rst and t h e personal name last. Dates given a fter personal names are those o f b irth and death except in the case o f rulers whose reign dates are preceded by "r." Generally the name b y whic h a person was most commonly known in Japanese tradition is the one used in the text. Since t h is boo k is intended for t h e general reader, rather than the specialist, we have not b urdened the text with a list o f the alternate names or titles whic h usually accompany biographical re ference to a scholar in Chinese or Japanese historical wor k s. For the same reason, t he l xi 1 sources o f translations, given at the beginning o f each selection, are rendered as concisely as possi b le. In t he re ference at th e head o f each selection, unless otherwise indicated, the author o f t he boo k is th e sources o f translations, given at the b eginning o f each selection, are ren­ dered as concisely as possi b le. Full b i b liographical data can be obtained f rom the list o f sources at the end o f the b oo k. In the re ference at the h ea d o f each selection, unless otherwise indicated, the author o f the b oo k is t h e writer whose name precedes the selection. Where excerpts have been taken f rom existing translations, they have usually b een adapted a n d edited to suit our purposes. I n particular, unnecessary brac k ets and foot­ notes have been suppressed wherever possi b le, but i f essential commentary could b e inserted parenthetically in the text, we have pre ferre d to do so rather than ad d a footnote. Those interested in the f ull text and anno­ tations may, o f course, re fer to the original translation cited with each such excerpt. As sources for our own translations we h ave tried to use standard editions, i f such exist, which would be availa b le to other scholars. w. T. [ xii ] DE B. CONTENTS XIX Chronological Table Chapter 1: The Earliest Records of Japan J APAN IN THE CHINESE DYNASTIC HISTORIES Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians : History of the Kingdom of Wei, 4; History of the Latter Han Dynasty, 7; History of the Liu Sung Dynasry, 7; History of the Sui Dynasty, 9; New History of the T'ang Dynasty, 1 0 3 J APANESE CHRONICLES From the Preface to Records of Ancient Matters, 1 2 ; Birth of the Sun Goddess, 14; The Divine Creation of the Imperial Ancestors, 15; The August Declaration of the Division of the August Children, 1 7 ; De­ scent of the Divine G randson with the Three Imperial Regalia, 1 7 ; His Marriage with the Daughter of the Great Mountain Deity, 1 8 ; The Heavenly Grandchild and the Sea-God's Daughter, 19 12 THE EARLIEST Chapter II: 21 Early Shinto LEGENDS CONCERNING SHINTO DEITIES 24 Birth of the Land, 25 ; Legends Concerning Susa-no-o, 27; Princess Yam a to and Prince Plenty, 3 1; Enshrinement of Amaterasu, 32 Chapter Ill: Prince Shotoku and His Constitution 34 CIVIL STRIFE I N THE LATE SIXTH CENTURY 37 THE REIGN O F SUIKO AND RULE O F SHOTOKU 42 The Empress Suiko, 43; The Seventeen-Article Constitution of Prince Shotoku, 47 [ xiii ] Chapter IV: Chinese Thought and Institutions in Early Japan CHINESE-STYLE HISTORY AND THE IMPERIAL CONCEPT 52 60 Preface to Records of Ancient Matters, 6o; The First Emperor, Jimmu, 64 ; Nintoku: Rule of Benevolence, 66 68 THE REFORM ERA Fujiwara Kamatari and the Future Emperor Tenchi, 68 ; Inauguration of the Great Reform Era, 69; Reform Edicts, 69; The White Pheasant, 76 The Commentary on the Legal Code : Memoriat on the Submission of the Commentary, 79 ; Regulations for Fitness Reports, 8o New Compilation of the Register of Families, 85 ; Preface in the Form of a Memorial to Emperor Saga, 86 Preface to the Kaifiiso, 88 Chapter V: Nara Buddhism The Siitra of the Golden Light, 97 : The Protection of the Country by the Four Deva Kings, 98 The Vimalakirti Siitra, 99 STATE SPONSORSHIP AND CONTROL OF BUDDHISM Proclamation on the Erection of the Great Buddha Image, 1 04; Two Edicts Concerning Dokyo, 1 05 ; Regulation of Buddhist Orders, 1 06 Mahayana Universalism and the Sense of Hierarchy 1 12 Chapter VI: Saicho and Mount Hiei The Lotus Siitra, 1 1 6 ; The Revelation of the Mahayana, 1 1 7; The Effie�··:· of the Lotus Siitra, 12 3 Vow of Uninterrupted Study of the Lotus Siitra, 1 24 ; A Mani­ festation of the Discipline, 125 ; Regulations for Students of the Mountain School, I, 1 27, II, 1 29 sAICHo: Chapter VII: Kukai and Esoteric Buddhism Kiikai and His Master, 1 40 ; The Transmission of the Law, 1 42 The Difference between Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism : I ntroduc­ tion, 1 44 The Precious Key to the Secret Treasury : Introduction, 1 46 ; Re­ capitulation of the Ten Stages of Religious Consciousness, 1 50 [ xiv J 133 Chapter VIII: The Spread of Esoteric Buddhism Prayer of Shirakawa on O ffering the Tripi�aka to Hachiman, 157; Sex and Buddhahood-A Shingon Heresy, 163; Prayers for the Shogun, 165 Chapter IX: The Vocabulary of Japanese Aesthetics I MURASAKI SHIKIBU: FUJIWARA NO TEIKA: On the Art of the Novel, 1 76 Introduction to the Guide to the Composition of Poetry, 179 Despair, Deliverance, and Destiny Chapter X: Amida and the Pure Land PIONEERS OF PURE LAND BUDDHISM P recepts for Followers of the Timely Teaching, 1 90; Psalm of the Six Hundred Thousand People, 192 IPPEN: GENSHIN: The Essentials of Salvation, 192 197 HONEN Letter to Tsukinowa's Wife, 199; Declaration on Going i nto Exile, 201; The One-Page Testament, 202 SHINRAN AND THE TRUE PURE LAND SECT 203 Hymn to the True Faith in the Nembutsu, 206; Selections from the Tannish6, 210 Chapter XI: Nichiren: The Sun a11d the Lotus 213 Dedication to the Lotus, 216; Condemnation of Honen, 217; Warn­ ing of Foreign Invasion, 219; Nichiren as a Prophet, 219; A Chal­ lenge to Hachiman, 220; The Value of Suffering, 221; Nichiren as the Bodhisattva of Superb Action, 222; His Destiny to Convert Japan, 223; Japan as the Center of Buddhism's Regeneration, 224; Nichiren's Transfiguration, 225 Chapter XII: Zen ,Buddhism 229 ZEN PIONEERS IN JAPAN Propagation of Zen for the Protection of the Country, 235; Drink Tea and Prolong Life, 237 EISAI: (XV 1 Conversations, 240; Sacrifice, 242; True Dedication, 243; Exertion, 243; Realizing the Solution, 245; Sitting and the Koan, 247; The Importance of Sitting, 247; Body an...
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