ReviewGuideUnit5Evolution2 (1)

ReviewGuideUnit5Evolution2 (1) - Review Guide Unit 5...

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Unformatted text preview: Review Guide Unit 5: Evolution Name:_____________________________ Date: ______________ Class Period:_____________ Directions: ​ The test on Unit 5: evolution will contain material from textbook chapters 16, 17, and 18. There will be greater emphasis placed on chapter 17 and 18, which will make up roughly 75% of the test, and lesser emphasis on chapter 16, which will make up roughly 25% of the test. Below you will find guiding questions, important vocabulary, and a few practice questions on content from each chapter. These materials are meant to provide a rough outline to guide your review, not to to be an exhaustive list of content to be studied. To be well prepared, you should consult your textbook, labs, in­class handouts, notes, as well as animations and videos on the course webpage. At the end of studying, you should feel you have some reasonable answers to the essential question of this unit, “How has life changed over time? Recommended study strategies​ : ● Review early and review often (preferably with a friend or friends) ● Flashcards for vocabulary (or use the flashcards in the digital textbook) ● Repeatedly draw and label diagrams of abstract processes like natural selection ● Watch animations of abstract concepts like speciation ● Review information in handouts from class (particularly learning team documents) ● Set up a time to meet with me for extra help if you are stuck on a particular concept Chapter 16​ : Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Table 1.​ Important vocabulary from chapter 16 Evolution Fossil Artificial selection Adaptation Fitness Natural selection Biogeography Analogous structures Homologous structures Vestigial structure Charles Darwin Charles Lyell James Hutton Jean­Baptiste Lamarck Thomas Malthus Review Questions: 1. Study the bone arrangement in the bird and whale in figure 1. Propose an explanation for the similarity of elongated bone arrangement in the lower parts of the forelimb (metacarpals and phalanges), given the differences in the animals. Content adapted from Miller and Levine (2010) ​ Biology​ . Pearson, Boston, MA. Review Guide Unit 5: Evolution Name:_____________________________ Date: ______________ Class Period:_____________ 2. Thinking about how traits are inherited and considering the similarities in bone structure among the various animals, what might you expect to find if you compared the development of embryos among the organisms in figure 1? 3. Thinking about how traits are inherited, how would you explain the close similarities between the makeup of the oxygen­carrying molecule hemoglobin in organisms as diverse as birds, horses, gorillas, and humans? 4. Explain what the term ​ evolution means, and give an example. 5. What is artificial selection? How did this concept influence Darwin’s thought? 6. How would Darwin explain the long legs of the water bird in figure 2? How would Darwin’s explanation differ from Lamarck’s explanation? 7. How do DNA and RNA provide evidence for common descent? Chapter 17​ : The Evolution of Populations Table 1.​ Important vocabulary from chapter 17 Gene pool Allele frequency Direction selection Stabilizing selection Disruptive selection Genetic drift Bottleneck effect Founder effect Species Speciation Reproductive isolation Behavioral isolation Geographic isolation Temporal isolation Molecular clock 8. For the past 10 to 25 years, farmers have planted crop seeds that have been genetically modified to withstand treatment with a common weed killer called Roundup®. This allows the farmers to spray their fields to get rid of weeds without harming their crops. Recently, more and more farmers have discovered that their fields have Roundup­resistant pigweed growing along with their crop. Use what you have learned in chapter 17 to explain this phenomenon. 9. How does genetic recombination affect genetic variation? Content adapted from Miller and Levine (2010) ​ Biology​ . Pearson, Boston, MA. Review Guide Unit 5: Evolution Name:_____________________________ Date: ______________ Class Period:_____________ 10. In certain populations of plants, flower size is a polygenic trait. What kind of selection is likely to occur if environmental conditions favor small flowers? Why? 11. A botanist identifies two distinct species of violets growing in a field. Also in the field ae several other types of violets that, although somewhat similar to the two known species, appear to be new species. Develop an explanation for how the new species may have originated. Chapter 18​ : Classification Table 1.​ Important vocabulary from chapter 18 Binomial nomenclature Genus Phylogeny Clade Cladogram Derived character Ancestral character Monophyletic group Sequence divergence Neutral mutations Molecular clock 12. What does each individual node in a cladogram represent? 13. Why can differences in mitochondrial DNA be used as derived characters? 14. Both snakes and worms are tubular, with no legs. How could you determine whether their similarity in shape means that they share a recent common ancestor? 15. You are a biologist who is search for new species in the Amazon jungle. You find two new species of beetles, beetle A and beetle B, that resemble each other closely but have somewhat different markings on their wings. In addition, both beetle A and beetle B resemble beetle C, a species that has already been identified. How could DNA similarities be used to help determine whether beetle A or beetle B are more closely related to each other or to beetle C? Content adapted from Miller and Levine (2010) ​ Biology​ . Pearson, Boston, MA. ...
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