Chapter 3 – The Message The Role of International Organizations Introduction -Initially New World International and Communication Order (NWICO) were invested too much by UNESCO.-This lead to a huge withdrawal during the 1980s from the US and UK from UNESCO-Essentially it was too much financial strain during the Cold War-Global media has two distinct origins. oUSA – Started with news papers, radio and now with Television, telecommunications and the internetoEurope – government controls mass media are controlled by the governmentBBC is a good example of a non-commercial radio and television network subsidized by both the government and listeners or viewers-There are two different types of global debates.oOne being more commercial, market-drive and orientated to free enterpriseoThe other being non-commercial, publicly funded and government controlled and regulated-More than half of the nations in the world, those in the peripheral regions still have restrictionsUNESCO: Backdrop to the NWICO Debates-UNESCO originated in Great Britain in 1945-Countries cannot change the politician and socio-cultural factors that shape integrated developments-UNESCO is there to enlarge the scientific and technological base which permiteach country to use its natural resources; to improve and increase communication-Most peripheral nations began joining UNESCO after WWIIoThey viewed UNESCO as a specialized agency of the US which understands them and promotes their needs-UNESCOs mandate is broad, covering educational, scientific, cultural and communication programs and research projects around the globe-Ambiguity is no better illustrated than in their attitude toward global communicationoMany of these nations want- some desperately – to become modern industrialized countries with all the media trapping that money and technology permitoBut most lack even the basic telecommunication infrastructures for telephone, let alone sophisticated ground terminals for satellite
television transmission, or broadband cable or fiber optics for internetaccess oMost of these nations reject western culture, only indigenous domesticmedia will be placed in public view-Another cause for criticism was the consistent demand of peripheral countries for better development-UNESCO, core governments, and multinational media corporations largely ignore the issues and questions being raised because they underestimate the strength, determination, voting power and depth of animosity felt by both theSoviet Union and peripheral nations.Identifying the Issues and Taking Sides -UNESCOs General assembly in the 190’s outlined the need to articulate national communication policies and series of publicationsoPeripheral nations in particular they noticed that there was a need for increased documentation and greater awareness of the one-way flow of media messages from core peripheral nationsoSo much foreign media was produced in London, Paris, Toronto, NYC, or LA-
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