Bio Exam 1 Study Guide

Bio Exam 1 Study Guide - Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 1...

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Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 1. Describe the diversity and unity of cells -range in size, shape and chemical requirments - difference in reproduction -difference in cell function -central dogma (DNA->transcribed to RNA, RNA->translated to protein) -three domains of life: Prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) Eukaryotes -life is carbon based (organic compounds) -building blocks of life are invariable 2. Draw and Label a basic Prokaryotic cell l_________l 1micrometer Both Archaea and Bacteria -spherical, rod-shaped, spiral -no membrane bound organelles or nucleus; circular chromosomes -unicellular - asexual, horizontal gene transfer -size .2-10 micrometers -may have cell wall made of peptidoglycan (positive for chemical Gram stain) Archaea - harsh environments -similar translation and transcription to Eukarya -metabolism=methanogenesis Bacteria -soil -Unique translation and transcription -metabolism=photosynthesis, aerobic(use oxygen to oxidize food) and anaerobic(killed when exposed to oxygen) respiration, fermentation
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3 . Draw and label the Eukaryotic cell types, plants and animals Eukaryotes (animal and plant) -DNA in nucleus -uni or multicellular -asexual/sexual -size 10-100 micrometers -membrane bound organelles -multiple linear chromosomes -Nucleus = contains DNA -Nuclear Envelope = two concentric membranes -Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)= factory of cell, makes packages to be exported -rough(ribosomes) ER = protein production, protein folding, control and dispatch - smooth ER = production and metabolism of fats -membrane enclosed - Golgi Apparatus = modifies packages from ER and folds proteins -secreted from cell -transported to another cell compartment -Peroxisomes = hydrogen peroxide to break down toxic materials -membrane enclosed -Lysosomes =digestor -break down old/worn organelles, macromolecules -Endocytosis and Exocytosis -Mitochondria =power -site of ATP production= chemical fuel for cellular processes -cellular respiration= oxidation of food->produce ATP->CO 2 -have own DNA -enclosed in two membranes (inner and outer)= more surface area= more energy production -Vacuole = storage container -Plasma membrane = phospholipid bilayer -Cytosol = “soup” -site of chemical reactions -Cytoplasm = cytosol+organelles+membranes -motor protiens= (use ATP) to move along cytoskeleton -Cytoskeleton
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