122ch16a_001

122ch16a_001 - a z β€œ,4 1.7.441 I K Al'f/Aβ€˜-’ Hf,’/1...

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Unformatted text preview: . a z. _ β€œ,4,- 1.7.441 / / I K Al_ . 'f/Aβ€˜-’ Hf... _ ,’/1_ ~// Β»/ ;, (Iβ€˜ll' " A ha 11441144 f e β€˜ a β€˜ . / Mgr) ' I β€˜_./’ β€˜4’ / ’ 1β€œ _. ' . I / ' f ' I 'Jh/M'11n z 1 fl / I m / Z L/ 5 ' a j . - I 4) According to the Arrhenius definition, a base'when dissolved in water Increases [0H']- ' According to the Bransted-Lowry theory, a base is an H" acceptor regardless of physical state. A Bronstedβ€”Lowry base is not limited to aqueous solufion and need not contain OHf or produce it in aqueous solution. #54?) + W/Γ© Q.) #444,675) β€”4 Β£34 cove/s ma W f NH3(g) + H200) 1β€”? NH4*(aq) + OHβ€˜(aq) When NH3 dissolves in water. it accepts ’7β€œ F H” from H20 (B-L definition). in doing so, OHβ€œ is produced (Arrhenius definition). " Note that the OH' produced was originally part of the H20 molecule, not part of the - . _ __Al - NH3 molecule. ' β€” a..- 1. . fl ~, ._ 14/ ,~ 4/ //1 I :5- 1/4"},β€˜14' 1’ I” I - / ff; /;,~_€.A- ’1 _ [m 01/ //gf 1- I o 4’21 4 _ . 7β€œ ’ If /441 1/ ' I... ’ 4- B-L acid + B-L base 5β€”? Conu ate acid + Coniugate bags (8) HCH02(aq) H200) H30*(aq) CH02β€˜(aq) β€”β€” (b) HSO.β€˜(aq) 003'(aq) H003'(aq) SO4"(aq) (c) H30β€˜(aq) HP04"-(aq) H2P04β€˜(aq)l H200) / r 2 β€” . ,β€˜ .' ' ’ 1/4., 1/ e I _4 (1-4.1 'Iβ€˜.. my; [A ,/ My,β€œ 41 1 ac / ,1 I / a I d I .. , [4- - 44' I . rail HNOs. it is One of the seven strong acids (Section 16.5). Also, in a series of oxyacids with the same central atom (N). the acid with more 0 atoms isstronge (Section 16.10). r M43. When NH, and H20 are combined, as in NH3(aq), NH3 acts as the B-L base, accepting H” from H20. NH3 has the greater tendency to accept H”. For binary hydrides. base strengthjncreases going to the left across a row of the periodic chart ' (Section 16.10). ' ' ' - 1.Β»! ’ :4. f4 /. IA" ’ Base + Acid -β€˜β€”-'-r Coniugate acid + IConiugate base W ’ ' ’——r ' F . + - CO 2β€˜ a β€”β€˜E)_ F (aq) + H003 (aQ) $4rΒ’tltg(?lglzclo/- draw? Jag) HF is a stronger acid than HCOaβ€˜. so the eguiiibrium jjggto theigft. :1 021?; H200). oH'taq) + 0H'(aq) - umβ€” dwager 579m,"- ace/d H20 is a stronger acid than OH", base in this problem is oxide. 02' not superoxide, 02β€˜. The reaction of superoxide I with water is complex and involves more than Hβ€œ transfer.) (03 β€˜4- r er 64 I! as") :32 HS'(aβ€˜q> + CgHaoziaq β€”> st(aq> 5 er Γ©ase S gerauβ€˜ H .. I _ _ H02 302 is a stronger acid than HZS. so the egunllbnum l|_eΒ§ to the right. + so the eguilibrium Iifito the m. (The intended W 1 CzHaoz-(aQ) β€”~β€”~β€”β€”- I, /.1/ 7flf' I L 1/, a"; I,_ 4;: l . I β€˜ β€˜ ' r I '-β€˜β€” 4/ /7( 14' _ "7/1' I (A M; _.- Imm-IMBMDW. - . man/mammal = 7 4733): _ A change of one pH unit (in either direction) is: ApH = PH: - M = -(|09[Hβ€˜]2 -|Β°9 [H11)= 409 antilog of -1 is 1 x 10". Thus, a ApH of One un by a factor of 10. [H '12 [H ’1 .. it refiresents an increase or decrease in [Hβ€˜] HM; =' :1: 1. The antilog of +1 is. 10; the ...
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122ch16a_001 - a z β€œ,4 1.7.441 I K Al'f/Aβ€˜-’ Hf,’/1...

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