122_BLB9_15_V2 final

122_BLB9_15_V2 final - Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium...

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Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium
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• Consider colorless frozen N 2 O 4 . At room temperature, it decomposes to brown NO 2 : N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2NO 2 ( g ) • At some time, the color stops changing and we have a mixture of N 2 O 4 and NO 2 . Chemical equilibrium is the point at which the concentrations of all species are constant. Equilibrium Equilibrium
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The Concept of Equilibrium The Concept of Equilibrium
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• The point at which the rate of decomposition: N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2NO 2 ( g ) equals the rate of dimerization: 2NO 2 ( g ) N 2 O 4 ( g ). is dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium is dynamic because the reaction has not stopped the opposing rates are equal The Concept of Equilibrium The Concept of Equilibrium
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• As the substance warms it begins to decompose: N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2NO 2 ( g ) • A mixture of N 2 O 4 (initially present) and NO 2 (initially formed) appears light brown. • When enough NO 2 is formed, it can react to form N 2 O 4 : 2NO 2 ( g ) N 2 O 4 ( g ) The Concept of Equilibrium The Concept of Equilibrium
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• At equilibrium, as much N 2 O 4 reacts to form NO 2 as NO 2 reacts to re-form N 2 O 4 : (double arrow implies the process is dynamic) Forward reaction: A B Rate = k f [A] Reverse reaction: B A Rate = k r [B] At equilibrium k f [A] = k r [B] Equilibrium Equilibrium N 2 O 4 ( g )2 NO 2 ( g )
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• For an equilibrium we write • As the reaction progresses – [A] decreases to a constant, – [B] increases from zero to a constant.
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course CHEM 122 taught by Professor Zellmer during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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122_BLB9_15_V2 final - Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium...

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