122_BLB9_17_V1 full

122_BLB9_17_V1 full - Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of...

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Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Only 17.1, 17.2, and 17.3 sections will be covered in Chem 122.
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The solubility of a partially soluble salt is decreased when a common ion is added The Common Ion Effect The Common Ion Effect
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• If acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, is added to water, (At equilibrium H + and C 2 H 3 O 2 - are constantly moving into and out of solution, but the concentrations of ions are constant) • If we then add C 2 H 3 O 2 - , which is a common ion (e.g. adding the sodium salt) - then, [C 2 H 3 O 2 - ] will increase -so , ±[H + ] must decrease to reestablish equilibrium
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A buffer consists of a mixture of a weak acid (HX) and its conjugate base (X - ) Buffered Solutions Buffered Solutions HX( aq ) H + ( aq ) + X - ( aq ) A buffer resists a change in pH when a small amount of OH - or H + is added!
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•T h e K a expression is Buffered Solutions Buffered Solutions HX( aq ) H + ( aq ) + X - ( aq ) ] X [ ] HX [ ] H [ ] HX [ ] X ][ H [ - - a a K K = = + +
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•W h e n O H - is added to the buffer, the OH - reacts with HX to produce X - and water - But, the [HX]/[X - ] ratio remains ~constant, - so the pH is ~constant Or, when: •H + is added to the buffer, X - is consumed to produce HX.
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122_BLB9_17_V1 full - Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of...

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