week-2 - Week 2 lectures-tentative 10.7 10.8...

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10.7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory 420 Application to the Gas Laws 10.8 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion 423 Graham's Law of Effusion Diffusion and Mean Free Path 10.9 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior 427 The van der Waals Equation Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids 11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids 444 11.2 Intermolecular Forces 445 Ion-Dipole Forces Dipole-Dipole Forces London Dispersion Forces Hydrogen Bonding Comparing Intermolecular Forces 11.3 Some Properties of Liquids 453 Viscosity Surface Tension 11.4 Phase Changes 455 Energy Changes Accompanying Phase Changes Heating Curves Critical Temperature and Pressure 11.5 Vapor Pressure 459 Explaining Vapor Pressure on the Molecular Level Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Week 2 lectures--tentative
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Theory developed to explain gas behavior. Theory based on properties at the molecular level . Kinetic molecular theory gives us a model for understanding pressure and temperature at the molecular level. Pressure of a gas results from the number of collisions per unit time on the walls of container. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory
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There is a spread of individual energies of gas molecules in any sample of gas. As the temperature increases, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules increases. Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory
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Assumptions: Gases consist of a large number of molecules in constant random motion. Volume of individual molecules negligible compared to volume of container. Intermolecular forces (attractive or repulsive forces between gas molecules) are negligible. Energy can be transferred between molecules, but total kinetic energy is constant at constant temperature. Average kinetic energy of molecules is proportional to temperature. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory
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Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory Magnitude of pressure given by how often and how hard the molecules strike. Gas molecules have an average kinetic energy. Each molecule may have a different energy.
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As kinetic energy increases, the velocity of the gas molecules increases. Root mean square speed, u , is the speed of a gas molecule having average kinetic energy. Average kinetic energy, ε , is related to root mean square speed: Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory 2 2 1 mu = ε
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Do you remember how to calculate v xy from v x and v y ? ( 29 2 1 2 2 y x xy v v v + = And how about v from all three components? [ ] 2 1 2 2 2 z y x v v v v + + = Remember these equations!! They’ll pop up again in Chap. 11.
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Note that the mean value of velocity is zero!
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course CHEM 122 taught by Professor Zellmer during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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week-2 - Week 2 lectures-tentative 10.7 10.8...

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