week-8 - 16.1 16.2 Acids and Bases A Brief Review...

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Quiz number 5 will be given in recitation next week, Feb 26-Mar 2 on the first part of Chapter 16, to be covered in lectures this week. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review 16.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases H+ in water, Proton-transfer, Conjugate acids and bases, Relative strengths 16.3 The Autoionization of Water 16.4 The pH Scale other ‘p’ scales, measuring pH 16.5 Strong Acids and Bases Strong Acids, Strong Bases 16.6 Weak Acids K a from pH, Using K a to Calculate pH, Polyprotic Acids 16.7 Weak Bases Types of Weak Bases 16.8 Relationship Between Ka and Kb 16.9 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions 16.10 Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure 16.11 Lewis Acids and Bases Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp 121 see also pp 121 -127 and pp 134 127 and pp 134 -143. 143. Acid: taste sour. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H + ] bases increase [OH - ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid + base salt + water. Problem: the definition confines us to aqueous solution. Brønsted Brønsted -Lowry Acids and Bases Lowry Acids and Bases The H + Ion in Water Ion in Water • The H + ( aq ) ion is simply a proton with no electrons. (H has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons.) • In water, the H + ( aq ) form clusters. • The simplest cluster is H 3 O + ( aq ). Larger clusters are H 5 O 2 + and H 9 O 4 + . • Generally we use H + ( aq ) and H 3 O + ( aq ) interchangeably to mean a hydrated proton. The H The H + Ion in Water Ion in Water Brønsted Brønsted -Lowry Acids and Bases Lowry Acids and Bases Proton Transfer Reactions • Focus on the H + ( aq ). • Brønsted-Lowry: acid donates H + and base accepts H + . • Brønsted-Lowry base does not need to contain OH - . • Consider HCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) = H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ): – HCl donates a proton to water. Therefore, HCl is an acid. –H 2 O accepts a proton from HCl. Therefore, H 2 O is a base. • Water can behave as either an acid or a base. •Am p h o t e r
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Proton transfer reactions: Conjugate Acid -Base Pairs Base Pairs • Whatever is left of the acid after the proton is donated is called its conjugate base . • Similarly, whatever remains of the base after it accepts a proton is called a conjugate acid . • Consider – After HA (acid) loses its proton it is converted into A - (base). Therefore HA and A - are conjugate acid-base pairs. – After H 2 O (base) gains a proton it is converted into H 3 O + (acid). Therefore, H 2 O and H 3 O + are conjugate acid-base pairs. • Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by only one proton.
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course CHEM 122 taught by Professor Zellmer during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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week-8 - 16.1 16.2 Acids and Bases A Brief Review...

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