Prelim 1 Cheat Sheet - Chapter 2 The Chemical View of...

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Chapter 2: The Chemical View of Matter -Diatomic Molecules: BrINClHOF -M – mega- (10^6), μ – micro- (10^-6), n – nano- (10^-9) Chapter 3: Atoms and the Periodic Table -Alpha particles – positively-charged helium nuclei -Beta particles – high speed electrons -Gamma rays – high-energy Electromagnetic Radiation Λv = C E=hv -Quantum – the smallest increment of energy -Subshells – 4s filled before 3d, 5s before 4d, 6s before 4f -Hydrogen 1 1 s 1 Helium 2 1 s 2 Lithium 3 1 s 2 2 s 1 Beryllium 4 1 s 2 2 s 2 Boron 5 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 1 Carbon 6 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 Nitrogen 7 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 Oxygen 8 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 Fluorine 9 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5 Neon 10 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 Sodium 11 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 Magnesium 12 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 Aluminum 13 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 1 Silicon 14 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 2 Phosphorus 15 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 3 Sulfur 16 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 4 Chlorine 17 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 5 Argon 18 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 Potassium 19 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 1 Calcium 20 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 -Metals – conduct electric current, are malleable and ductile Trends -Size of atoms decreases as you move from left to right -Size of atoms increases as you move down a group -Reactivity for metals increases as you move down a group -Reactivity for nonmetals decreases as you move down a column Groups 1A – Alkali 2A – Alkali Earths – harder, more dense 7A – Halogens – diatoms 8A – Noble Gases – colorless, not reactive Chapter 4: The Air We Breathe -Troposphere – Tropopause (10 km) – Stratosphere (Ozone) – Mesosphere -Anthropogenic pollution – attributable to human activity -Clean Air Act (1990) – regulates particulates, ozone, CO, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, ozone-depleting chemicals (freons) -Acid Rain – H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) acidifies soil and ground water -Thermal Inversion – polluted cool air cannot rise above warm air -Industrial Smog (London Smog) – caused often by coal burning Photochemical Smog – formed by action of sunlight on photoreactive pollutants in the air -Secondary pollutants – formed by chemical reactions in atmosphere Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide: NO 2 → NO + O, O 2 + O → O 3 (NO and NO2 are both pollutants) -Free radical – has one or more unpaired electrons -Allotropes – different molecular forms of the same element -Sulfur dioxide is a primary pollutant RO 2 , NO 2 and aldehydes are in smog
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