Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood -...

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Andrew Lynn 2/5/08 Notes: Chapter Five I. Body Growth A. Changes in Body size and Muscle-Fat Makeup 1. End 1 st year more than 50 percent greater 2. Age 2 increased 75 percent 3. 5 months doubled weights tripled by age 1 and quadrupled by 2 years 4. 9 months of age, start to slim down, crawling and walking 5. Muscle tissue increases slowly unlike decrease of body fat B. Changes in Body Proportions 1. Cephalocaudal trend—an organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from head to tail i. Heads 1/3 length and size of body, moves head to toe fashion. ii. Lift head iii. Sitting up iv. Crawl v. Walking 2. Proximodistal trend—an organized patter of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward i. Trunk grows ii. Arms legs iii. Hands feet iv. Parallel with developmental milestones, rolling, crawling, walking, fine motor control C. Skeletal Growth 1. General skeletal growth i. Skeletal age—an estimate of physical maturity based on development of the bones of the body (a) Determined by x-ray (b) Rate of bone growth (c) Cultural and ethnic difference (d) African Americans tend to mature ahead of causations (e) Girls tend to be ahead of boys 2. Epiphyses—growth centers in the bones where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually harden 3. Growth of Skull i. Rapid ii. Fontanels—6 gaps or soft spots separating the bones of the skull at birth 4. Appearance of Teeth i. First tooth 4-6 months ii. 2 avg 20 teeth iii. Teeth early can be used as a marker as overall physical growth and maturity II. Brain Development A. Development of Neurons 1 of 4
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Andrew Lynn 2/5/08 B. 100-200 billion neurons C. Neurotransmitters D. Synaptic pruning—loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons,
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2008 for the course PSYCH 212 taught by Professor Marchand during the Spring '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood -...

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