Chapter 2 Biological and Environmental Foundations

Chapter 2 Biological and Environmental Foundations - Andrew...

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Andrew Lynn 1/29/08 Notes: Chapter Two I. Genetic Foundations A. Genotype B. Phenotype C. Chromosomes 1. 26 pairs in gametes 2. 46 in body cells 3. first 22 pairs—autosomes 4. 24-26—gametes D. Genetic Code 1. DNA 2. Chromosomes 3. Genes 4. Mitosis 5. Meiosis E. Boy v. Girl 1. Women have genetic advantage over ment 2. Boys more likely to be aborted F. Multiple Births 1. Fraternal/dizyogtic, 2 eggs 2. Identical/monozygotic, 1 egg splits G. Genetic Inheritance 1. Allele—two forms of each gene i. One form from each parent ii. BB, Bb, bb 2. Homozygous—two identical alleles i. BB ii. bb 3. Heterozygous—two different alleles i. Bb ii. Dominate/Recessive Inheritance—pattern of inheritance, only one allele is apparent iii. Carriers—recessive allele still expressed perhaps in future offspring iv. Incomplete Dominance—both alleles are expressed in the phenotype (a) Sickle cell trait—in certain conditions sickle cell anemiea occurs—blood cells shaped like sickles that block the flow of blood 4. X-linked inheritance—recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome so males are more likely to be affected. i. Info on the X doesn’t that opportunity to be cancelled out by the Y ii. Hemophilia—blood doesn’t clot 5. Genetic Imprinting—chemically marked, one pair is activated 1 of 4
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Andrew Lynn 1/29/08 regardless of it’s make up i. Explains childhood diabetes where only father or mother has
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  • Spring '07
  • Genetics, DNA, Andrew Lynn, Andrew Lynn 1/29/08 III

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