Equine Nutrition part 2 - Equine Nutrition Most Limiting...

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Equine Nutrition October 26, 2006 Most Limiting trace minerals - Copper 10ppm - Zinc 40ppm - Manganese 40ppm Recommendations appear higher at younger but lower reaching adulthood Copper - essential for normal absorption transport and mobilization of Fe, and for Hb Synthesis - Component of many enzymes (cytochrome oxidase) and nonexzyme proteins - Stored in most body tissues especially the liver - Bone disorder leading to joint swelling and lameness - 10ppm (NRC) - 20ppm has no effect on bone growth (weanlings) or incidence of DOD - 25ppm – lower incidence of DOD versus 8 ppm - 22-100 ppm: levels in commercial concentrates - 800ppm: maximum tolerable level Zinc - Component of several enzymes - Deficiency may be aggravated by high dietary Ca Levels and alleviated by decreasing Ca &/or Ca: P ratio - 40 ppm (NRC) - 100 ppm o No effect w/diets at this level on Cu use or storage - 75-300 ppm o Most common in commercial feeds - 500 ppm maximal tolerable level Manganese (Mn) - present in body in extremely small amounts - Important activator of several enzymes in energy metabolism - Adequate levels in most forages and grains and low in corn and most animal byproducts - 40 ppm required - 18-65 ppm o Levels in forages o 15lb forages = 270-975 ppm o 80-300 ppm Levels in commercial feeds o 1000ppm max Cu: Zn: Mn:
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1:4:4 w/in 15% - usually in an inorganic form (sulfate) - 30% of Cu, Zn, Mn Chelates o 1/3 organic - Organic Chelates – bound to amino acid, proteins Molybdenum - important in stimulating microbial activity - component and cofactor of several oxidase enzymes - Cu in cows is affected - No NRC suggestion - 1-3 ppm suggested o Higher levels are tolerated Chromium - .3 ppm - Potentates the action of insulin - Reduces blood levels of glucose and insulin - Not able to add to diets in US Selenium - component of the enzyme glutathione - catalyzes removal of hydrogen peroxide and protects cells from auto-oxidative damage o relationship with Vitamin E - .1 PPM (NRC) - .2-.3 o Current recommendations - 5.0 ppm toxicity Growing horses Ca: P 1.8: 1 Drops to 1.4 around 18 months Ca more than P always Fuel Sources - Hind gut not fully developed until 2 ½ years old - Feed protein sources and pastas - Now starting with low starch diets Cutting - adding other feedstuffs to a balanced diet - Typical sources o Oats
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o Corn o Bran o Vit/Mineral supplement o Protein supplement o Alters the nutrient/ calorie balance o Not a good thing most of the time o Beet pulp can be added Colostrum - “First milk” - Yellowish, sticky, and thick o Rich with antibodies o Provides immediate and temporary protection for disease o Passive transfer (acquired) of immunoglobulin from mare to the foal o In horses there are 6 layers of tissue between the foal and mare versus humans who have 3 layers so in humans it can be passed through before birth o Antibodies protect for about 30 days o Mild laxative effect Helps pass first manure (mecomeium) o Consumption important during first 12 hours o Premature lactation Milk leakage Most common reason a foal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrums - Immunoglobins in Colostrum o IgG
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