Key Terms for Exam 2 Achieved status: a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result a personal choice, merit, or direct effort o income education occupation (YOU DID SOMETHING TO BE ASSIGNED TO THIS TASK) Ascribed status: a social position received at birth or received involuntarily later in life, based on attributes over which an individual has little or no control such as race, age, sex o given at birth EX: Age, Sex, Race Dramaturgical analysis: Erving Goffman’s term for the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation o – the world is a theatrical stage o (compares social life to “theater”) o I mpression management: Erving Goffman’s term for people’s effort to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or images o Face-saving: Erving Goffman’s term for the strategies people use to rescue their performance when they experience a potential or actual loss of face o front stage and back stage - (also, civil attention, and the interaction order) Ethnomethodology: the study of common sense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves o (Common sense knowledge) o Interaction - based on SHARED ASSUMPTIONS o Breaching experiments Ex Classic: Elevator they would disrupt social situations Formal organization: highly structured group formed to complete certain tasks or achieving specific goals o structured group setting o created to complete tasks – require many o generally – rules – procedures – status limits Master status: the most important status that a person occupies o – Most important that you occupy EX: something meaningful the one you want to give emphasize Nonverbal communication: the transfer of information between people without the use of words o : face/eyes/touch – personal space
Personal space: the intermediate area surrounding a person that claims is private Role: a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status o Role Conflict: a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses at the same time Incompatible for multiple statuses (Military Women?) o Role Exit: a situation people disengage from social roles that have been central to their identity Ex: doing jobs that are gross and degrading just to pay the rent then trying to get your degree to get a better job to leave this status o Role Expectation: a groups or society definition of the way that a specific role should be played What am I supposed to do or expected o Role Performance: how a person actually plays a role What are my actions (Ideal vs. Real) o Role Strain:
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- Fall '16
- Sociology, person, Erving Goffman, common sense knowledge