Week1 - 1. 2. Why is a taxon confined to its present range?...

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1. Why is a taxon confined to its present range? 2. What enables a species to live where it does, and what prevents it from colonizing other areas? 3. What roles do climate, topography, and interactions with other organisms play in limiting the distribution of a species? 4. How do different kinds of organisms replace each other in topographic, ecological and geographic clines? 5. What are the species’ closest relatives; where are they found? Where did its ancestors live? Biogeography is a synthetic discipline biology: especially evolution, ecology, systematics population biology, geology, paleontology, climatology, limnology physiology of organisms + anatomy, development, evolutionary history geography and historical geography plate tectonics, glaciation, global change Biogeography investigates the relationships between pattern and process largely a historical science, but can create models of predictive value comparative observational science dependent on data collected by many individuals working over large areas for long periods of time islands represent natural experiments 1
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Plant geography off to an early start compared to zoogeography Historical figures of importance Charles Darwin Alfred Russel Wallace Joseph Dalton Hooker George Gaylord Simpson Ernst Mayr Robert MacArthur Edward O. Wilson Development of biogeography as a discipline was tied to the age of exploration early collectors compared biotas across regions by 18th century, fundamental patterns of distribution and geographic variation emerged up until 18th century, worldview was one of stasis -- as created Developments of 18th century: Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) Buffon’s Law: environmentally similar but isolated regions have distinct assemblages of mammals and birds -- first principle of biogeography Johann Reinhold Forster (1729-1798) one of the first systematic world views of biotic regions defined by plant assemblages Karl Willdenow (1765-1812) Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) Augustin P. de Candolle (1778-1841) 2
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19th Century: By early 1800’s biogeographers established patterns of:
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Week1 - 1. 2. Why is a taxon confined to its present range?...

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