Week6 - Systematics evolutionary pattern and process...

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Systematics evolutionary pattern and process Methods of determining patterns: descriptive vs phenetics vs cladistics Descriptive: intuitive approach used by naturalists for centuries. Phenetics: Used tree building algorithms based on distance matrices generated from different metrics that summarized overall similarity. Cladistics: using qualitative characters to reconstruct the evolutionary tree using an algorithm requiring the least number of steps (maximum parsimony). Phylogeography - the study of biogeography as revealed by a comparison of estimated phylogenies of populations or species with their geographic distributions 6 - 1
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Terms: clade - monophyletic group consisting of an ancestor and all of its descendents cladogram - branching diagram that reconstructs the sequence of past speciation events through which the common ancestor gave rise to ist descendants ingroup - set of taxa designated as the group of interest outgroup - related group to ingroup, used for providing a broader phylogenetic context to aid in determining the root of the ingroup or ancestral states of the ingroup; used for determining polarity of characters taxon - one or a group of species in the tree terminal taxon -- the tip of the branch synapomorphy - shared, derived character state plesiomorphy - ancestral characer state homoplasy - when a character state evolves more than once on different branches of the tree node - point at which a lineage branches or ends internode -- area between two nodes branch - node plus the internode immediately below it paraphyletic -- a group that has a common ancestor, but which does not include all the descendents of the ancestor polyphyletic -- common ancestor of group placed in another clade Usually there is more than one equally parsimonious tree.
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Week6 - Systematics evolutionary pattern and process...

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