Assignment #1 - Article#1 Learning by Viewing Versus...

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Article #1: Learning by Viewing Versus Learning by Doing: Evidence-based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments by Ruth Calvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer Clark and Mayer compare the differences between the types of learning and begin by stating that learning is by intellectual activity and not behavioural activity. How our memory system works is simple, we have two  memory systems, one called working memory, which has a limited capacity for storing information and long-term  memory, which has a larger capacity. There are three psychological principles that identify with learning: dual  coding principle, limited capacity principle and active learning principle. There are also three processors that help  us with learning, one is selecting, two is organizing and three is integrating. Clark and Mayer discuss and compare  the typical learning techniques that are still used in class today and elaborate on why it depends on how the  material is being presented and taught in order for the learner to understand. At the end, Clark and Mayer state that  the learning methods used should be more evidence-based in order for the learner to really absorb valuable  information.  To begin, when it comes to learning, a person has the capacity to select, organize and integrate information. Mayer (2008) explains that a person can only focus on a limited amount of information at any given time, by being  able to select information, the learner is able to focus on what is actually important to gain new knowledge; the  active process of organizing means that the learner is able to organize words and pictures mentally; and by being  able to connect the new information to our long-term memory is called integrating (p. 5-6). As reported by Clark  and Mayer (2008) many educators assume that learning requires constant behavioural responses, like online  questionnaires, group work and deeply engaging simulations. For example, “basic skill lessons focused on  mathematics or technical skills traditionally include many practice problems. However, completing practice  exercises imposes considerable mental work—work that can often take up so much working memory that there is  little left over for the selecting, organizing, and integrating processes essential to learning” (Clark and Mayer,  2008, p. 7). In order for effective learning, no matter if the material being taught is by an educator, workbook, or is  technology-based, all three fundamental processes must be supported (Clark and Mayer, 2008, p. 6).
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