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Essentials_Ch06 - Essentials of Geology 8e Frederick K...

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Essentials of Geology, 8e Frederick K. Lutgens & Edward J. Tarbuck
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Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Essentials of Geology, 8e Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke Southwestern Illinois College
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What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering They account for about 5 percent (by volume) of Earth’s outer 10 miles They contain evidence of past environ- ments Provide information about sediment transport Often contain fossils
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What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are important for economic considerations because they may contain Coal Petroleum and natural gas Sources of iron, aluminum, and manganese
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Turning sediment into rock Many changes occur to sediment after it is deposited Diagenesis – all of the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited Occurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth’s crust
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Turning sediment into rock Diagenesis Includes Recrystallization – development of more stable minerals from less stable ones Lithification – unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rock by Compaction Cementation by calcite, silica, and iron oxide
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Types of sedimentary rocks Sediment originates from mechanical and/or chemical weathering Rock types are based on the source of the material Detrital rocks – transported sediment as solid particles Chemical rocks – sediment that was once in solution
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Detrital sedimentary rocks The chief constituents of detrital rocks include Clay minerals Quartz Feldspars Micas Particle size is used to distinguish among the various types of detrital rocks
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