Essentials_Ch06

Essentials_Ch06 - Essentials of Geology, 8e Frederick K....

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Essentials of Geology, 8e Frederick K. Lutgens & Edward J. Tarbuck
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Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Essentials of Geology, 8e Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke Southwestern Illinois College
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What is a sedimentary rock? ± Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering ± They account for about 5 percent (by volume) of Earth’s outer 10 miles ± They contain evidence of past environ- ments ± Provide information about sediment transport ± Often contain fossils
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What is a sedimentary rock? ± Sedimentary rocks are important for economic considerations because they may contain ± Coal ± Petroleum and natural gas ± Sources of iron, aluminum, and manganese
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Turning sediment into rock ± Many changes occur to sediment after it is deposited ± Diagenesis – all of the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited ± Occurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth’s crust
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Turning sediment into rock ± Diagenesis ± Includes Recrystallization – development of more stable minerals from less stable ones Lithification – unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rock by Compaction Cementation by calcite, silica, and iron oxide
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Types of sedimentary rocks ± Sediment originates from mechanical and/or chemical weathering ± Rock types are based on the source of the material ± Detrital rocks – transported sediment as solid particles ± Chemical rocks – sediment that was once in solution
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Detrital sedimentary rocks ± The chief constituents of detrital rocks
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Essentials_Ch06 - Essentials of Geology, 8e Frederick K....

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