Essentials_Ch10

Essentials_Ch10 - Groundwater Chapter 10 Essentials of...

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Groundwater Chapter 10 Essentials of Geology, 8e Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke Southwestern Illinois College
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Importance of groundwater ± Groundwater is water found in the pores of soil and sediment, plus narrow fractures in bedrock ± Groundwater is the largest reservoir of fresh water that is readily available to humans
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Importance of groundwater ± Geological role of groundwater ± As an erosional agent, dissolving groundwater produces Sinkholes Caverns ± Groundwater serves as an equalizer of streamflow
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Distribution of groundwater ± Belt of soil moisture – water held by molecular attraction on soil particles in the near-surface zone ± Zone of saturation ± Formation Water not held as soil moisture percolates downward
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Features associated with subsurface water
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Distribution of groundwater ± Zone of saturation ± Formation Water reaches a zone where all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water Water within the pores is called groundwater ± Water table – the upper limit of the zone of saturation
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Distribution of groundwater ± Capillary fringe ± Extends upward from the water table ± Groundwater is held by surface tension in tiny passages between grains of soil or sediment
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Distribution of groundwater ± Zone of aeration ± Area above the water table ± Includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil moisture ± Water cannot be pumped by wells
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The water table ± The water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation ± Variations in the water table ± Depth is highly variable Varies seasonably and from year to year ± Shape is usually a subdued replica of the surface topography
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The water table ± Variations in the water table ± Factors that contribute to the irregular surface of the water table Water tends to “pile up” beneath high areas Variations in rainfall Variations in permeability from place to place
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The water table ± Interaction between groundwater and streams ± Constitutes a basic link in the hydrologic cycle ± Three types of interactions Gaining streams – gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the streambed Losing streams – lose water to the ground- water system by outflow through the stream- bed
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Essentials_Ch10 - Groundwater Chapter 10 Essentials of...

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