Essentials_Ch14 modified 6-3-03

Essentials_Ch14 modified 6-3-03 - The Ocean Floor Chapter...

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The Ocean Floor Chapter 14 Essentials of Geology, 8e Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke Southwestern Illinois College
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The vast world ocean ± Earth is often referred to as the water planet ± 71% of Earth’s surface is represented by oceans ± Continents and islands comprise the remaining 29 % ± Northern Hemisphere is called the land hemisphere, and the Southern Hemisphere the water hemisphere
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Distribution of land and water
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The vast world ocean ± Comparing the three major oceans ± Pacific Ocean is the largest and has the greatest depth ± When the Arctic Ocean is included, the Atlantic Ocean has the greatest north- south extent
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Mapping the ocean floor ± Depth was originally measured by lowering weighted lines overboard ± Echo sounder (also referred to as sonar ) ± Invented in the 1920s ± Primary instrument for measuring depth ± Reflects sound from ocean floor
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Mapping the ocean floor ± Multibeam sonar ± Employs an array of sound sources and listening devices ± Obtains a profile of a narrow strip of seafloor
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Echo sounders (A) and multibeam sonar (B)
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Mapping the ocean floor ± Three major topographic units of the ocean floor ± Continental margins ± Deep-ocean basins ± Mid-ocean ridges
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Major topographic divisions of the North Atlantic Ocean
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Continental margins ± Passive continental margins ± Found along most coastal area that surround the Atlantic Ocean ± Not associated with plate boundaries ± Experience little volcanism and few earthquakes
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course GS 100 taught by Professor Leavell during the Spring '06 term at Ohio State.

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Essentials_Ch14 modified 6-3-03 - The Ocean Floor Chapter...

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