Glaciers and glaciation

Glaciers and glaciation - Glaciers Glaciers are parts of...

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Glaciers ± Glaciers are parts of two basic cycles ± Hydrologic cycle ± Rock cycle ± Glacier – a thick mass of ice that orig- inates on land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow
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Glaciers ± Types of glaciers ± Valley ( alpine ) glaciers Exist in mountainous areas Flows down a valley from an accumulation center at its head ± Ice sheets Exist on a larger scale than valley glaciers Two major ice sheets on Earth are over Greenland and Antarctica
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Glaciers ± Types of glaciers ± Ice sheets Often called continental ice sheets Ice flows out in all directions from one or more snow accumulation centers ± Other types of glaciers Ice caps Outlet glaciers Piedmont glaciers
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Glaciers ± What if the ice on Earth melted ± Slightly more than 2 percent of the world’s water is tied up in glaciers ± Antarctic ice sheet Eighty percent of the world’s ice Nearly two-thirds of Earth’s fresh water Covers almost one and one-half times the area of the United States If melted, sea level would rise 60 to 70 meters
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Formation of glacial ice ± Glaciers form in areas where more snow falls in winter than melts during the summer ± Steps in the formation of glacial ice ± Air infiltrates snow ± Snowflakes become smaller, thicker, and more spherical ± Air is forced out
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Formation of glacial ice ± Steps in the formation of glacial ice ± Snow is recrystallized into a much denser mass of small grains called firn ± Once the thickness of the ice and snow exceeds 50 meters, firn fuses into a solid mass of interlocking ice crystals – glacial ice
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The transformation of snow to glacial ice
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Movement of glacial ice ± Movement is referred to as flow ± Two basic types
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Glaciers and glaciation - Glaciers Glaciers are parts of...

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