Ch03_Outline

Ch03_Outline - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Minerals:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Minerals: Building blocks of rocks ± By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition ± Rock A solid aggregate of minerals Composition of minerals ± Elements Basic building blocks of minerals Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) ± Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retains all the characteristics of an element
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Composition of minerals ± Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (+ charges) and neutrons (- charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells Structure of an atom Figure 3.4 A Composition of minerals ± Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements ± Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost ( valence ) electrons to form ions Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions
Background image of page 2
3 Halite (NaCl) – An example of ionic bonding Figure 3.6 Composition of minerals ± Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound Covalent bonding Figure 3.7
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Composition of minerals ± Other types of bonding Metallic bonding Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms Weaker and less common than other bonds Composition of minerals ± Isotopes and radioactive decay Mass number = sum of neutrons + protons in an atom Isotope = atom that exhibits variation in its mass number Unstable isotopes emit particles and energy in a process known as radioactive decay Structure of minerals ± Minerals consist of an orderly array of atoms chemically bonded to form a particular crystalline structure ± Internal atomic arrangement in ionic compounds is determined by ionic size
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 07/17/2008 for the course GS 121 taught by Professor Leavell during the Fall '07 term at Ohio State.

Page1 / 19

Ch03_Outline - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Minerals:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online