Fundamentals of Rocks

Fundamentals of Rocks - Fundamentals of Rocks The rock...

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Fundamentals of Rocks
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The rock cycle
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Rocks Are Aggregates of One or More Minerals
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Igneous • Formed from a melt (magma) of elements. Minerals (mostly silicates) crystallize as the melt cools – Crystal size depends upon rate of cooling – Composition depends upon geologic setting and process (major categories are granite and basalt) – Intrusive • Relatively slow cooling. • Emplaced within the earth – Extrusive • Volcanic, rapid cooling, often explosive • May be ash, glass or solid rock
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Aphanitic texture
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Phaneritic texture
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Porphyritic texture
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Glassy texture
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Ash and pumice layers
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Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks
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Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering They account for about 5 percent (by volume) of earth’s outer crust They contain evidence of past environments Provide information about sediment transport Often contain fossils
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Types of sedimentary rocks Sediment originates from mechanical and/or chemical weathering Rock types are based on the source of the material Detrital rocks – transported sediment as solid particles Chemical rocks – sediment that was once in solution
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Fundamentals of Rocks - Fundamentals of Rocks The rock...

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