Unformatted text preview: Land Reform in China
Since 1950 Transition to Socialism Before 1949 Feudal warlords controlled much of the land Tenancy was prevalent Introduction of People's Republic of China Redistribution of land Elimination of landlord class Collectivization First Stage (Mutual Aid Teams) Consisted of 5 to 6 households Peasants encourage to join MATs Equipment and labor shared only during the busy season Followed plan similar to Soviets 40% joined MATs by 1952 Collectivization Second Stage (Agriculture Producer's Cooperatives) Equipment and labor shared permanently Consisted of entire or part of village Formed a common land pool By, 1956 96% of rural families were organized into collectives. Point system used to determine income Collectivization Third Stage Advanced Cooperatives Income based according to needs and labor contribution. Land became property of the cooperative Average of 150 to 200 households No longer voluntary Collectivization From 19531957 grain production increased 3.5% each year. Dramatic increase in industrial production. Heavy Industry absorbed 85% of investment. Only 8% of state investment was towards agriculture. Learned from the Soviet Union mistakes Payment System in Collectives Timerate method Based on a combination of observable and unobservable characteristics. Observable Unobservable Age, sex, physical strength, and farming skills How hard one is working Rural People's Communes Timerate method Based on a combination of observable and unobservable characteristics. Observable Unobservable Age, sex, physical strength, and farming skills How hard one is working Great Leap Forward 19581960 Unrealistic production goals Attempt to move industry to countryside Food shortages Caused by inflated production stats Weather unfavorable 19591961 1960 to 1978 Balance GLF Material economic development Recovery from Incentives reemerged Reintroduction of private plots Importance placed on efficiency Household Responsibility System Introduce in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping Brought collectivization to an end Restrictions remained on availability of land Fragmentation Not as efficient as hoped Two Land System First attempted in Pingdu in 1984 Total cultivated land divided into two parts Maintain social equity Achieve economic efficiency Food Land Contract Land By the 1990's was nationally accepted Conclusion Growth was achieved but with many setbacks Still trying to find an equitable and efficient farming system The growing economic gap between the rural and urban areas has been causing growing disturbances in the rural areas. What will result in this and what steps should the CCP take to calm the peasants? ...
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- Winter '06
- People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Land reform, Unobservable characteristics, Xiaoping Brought collectivization, Land System