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VickersEstonia - Estonia's Transition to a Market Economy...

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    Estonia’s Transition to a Market  Economy By Mark Vickers Estonia’s Historical  Cultural Garden in  Cleveland, OH Habitat for Humanity  project
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        Real GDP growth Rate -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 1989 1993 2003 Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland GDP Converted to US Dollars in Billions $- $2.00 $4.00 $6.00 $8.00 $10.00 $12.00 1989 1993 2003 Estonia Latvia GDP after Transition Worldbank.org Worldbank.org
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    Population 0 5000000 10000000 15000000 20000000 25000000 30000000 35000000 40000000 45000000 1989 1995 2004 Estonia Finland Poland It is hard to even compare Estonia and the other Baltic states to other European countries due to its relatively small size 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 1989 1993 2003 Estonia Latvia Lithuania Lithuania’s population is at 3.5 million Poland’s population is at35 million
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    Geography Distinguishing  characteristics Northern Europe Separated from  Finland by the Gulf of  Finland Solid trading partner Separated from  Sweden by the Baltic  Sea Bordered by Latvia  and Russia
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    Fluctuations in Rule after first Declaration of Independence Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 First Independence in 1918 Establishment of Riigikogu Saeima-Latvia Similar to Estonia’s parliament, but with more corruption Seimas-Lithuania Democratic rep., but dominated by Catholic Church Treaty between Russia and Estonia in 1920 World War 2 Estonia needed to choose side Nonagression pact of 1939 Hitler-Stalin pact of 1939 Break up of Baltics
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    Soviet Era Estonia and Latvia accused of  conspiracy 1941 German attack on USSR USSR recaptures Estonia Stalin’s death in 1953 Forced communes until Nikita  Krushchev in 1953, who  brought soviet republics Emergence of Estonian  Communist Party “Thaw Period” in late 1960s Lasted until early 1980s Arts and literature flourished as  well as economy
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