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Ch13_Outline - Chapter 13 Divergent Boundaries Origin and...

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1 Chapter 13 Divergent Boundaries: Origin and Evolution of the Ocean Floor Mapping the ocean floor Depth was originally measured by lowering weighted lines overboard Echo sounder (also referred to as sonar ) Invented in the 1920s Primary instrument for measuring depth Reflects sound from ocean floor Mapping the ocean floor Multibeam sonar Employs an array of sound sources and listening devices Obtains a profile of a narrow strip of seafloor
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2 Mapping the ocean floor Viewing the ocean floor from space Satellites use radar altimeters to measure subtle differences of the ocean surface Small variations reflect the gravitational pull of features on the seafloor Mapping the ocean floor Three major provinces of the ocean floor Continental margins Deep-ocean basins Oceanic (mid-ocean) ridges Echo sounder (A) and multibeam sonar (B) Figure 13.3
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