Lecture 29 - Lecture 29 – Adaptive Immunity Mucosal...

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Lecture 29 – Adaptive Immunity Mucosal Immune System: MALT – Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue Also found in GI tract, urogenital (minus urterus & testes), respiratory tissue, mammary glands Largest part of the immune system M cells – binds antigens passing through, and pass antigens to dendritic cells which become presenting cells and present the antigens to other immune cells. This immune response isn’t systemic, antibodies and other lymphocytes may be produced then be passed to other place in lymphoid tissue. Elicit local responses for the most part. Major point of entry for pathogens (400+ m 2 of mucosa) Partially separate from the systemic immune system Impairment: Things that impair immune system or make compromised host Compromise o Genetic – different people have stronger or weaker immune responses o Age – children under 3 and people 65 older have weak immune responses; children under 3 immune systems not fully developed o Disorder – genetic, congenital, or diseases from infections o Seasonal – lower on T cells in spring o Diet – poor nutrition esp. in vitamins and proteins can lead to poor inflammatory responses and end up deficient in macrophages and lymphocytes o Pregnancy – results in depressed cell mediate immunity. Humoral immunity typically not affected. o Traumatic injury – injury that does great damage to body, typically involving loss of blood, creates competition where body must heal and provide immunity. Leads to great surface area for infection. o Pollution – can damage mucosal surfaces, esp. air pollution. Can cause depressed macrophage activity. Immunization: Active immunity – eliciting active immunity in person by vaccine or introduction of toxoid, which is an inactivated version of a toxins they may still contain the episomes. The inactivated virus or bacteria will elicit T cells and memory cells. Can inject, mist, oral (polio vaccines). Live viruses can give lifelong immunity. Measles, mumps, rubella = live attenuated virus which gives lifelong immunity Hazards to immunization : can get mild forms of disease (why pregnant women are immunized with live vaccines), allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, autism Passive Immunity – ready-made antibodies; not inducing body to respond and make their own, giving people antibodies that are already made. Does NOT last long so short lived. Lasts only weeks-months. Globulins = serum proteins
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gamma globulin/immune serum = giving serum proteins with antibodies in them; typically pooled from many individuals, not highly specific, sufficient if administered to fight common diseases in which large portion of population is immunized against. Hyperimmune globulin – taking it from people with high antibody titers for SPECIFIC diseases Antitoxins – antibodies that were developed against specific toxins; ex. Tetanus shot; shorten duration or lessen severity of a disease; can give in short time spans Specific Immunities: Bacteria o
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