Philosophy Reading Assignment

Philosophy Reading Assignment - Summarizing Reading for...

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Summarizing Reading for 376C-End of Book II Understanding the context- Fighting the argument “Justice is desirable in and of itself” Two kinds of political justice—the justice belonging to a larger political realm like a city or state or the justice of a specific individual Socrates plan of attack first looks to justice at the political level and then the individual, first building up a perfectly just city (Where and when does justice come into the city?) The principle of specialization: each person must perform the role for which he is naturally best suited and that he must not meddle in any other business. Human beings have natural inclinations that should be fulfilled. Highest level of quality and efficiency. Reading- ‘Just’ city and healthy city in Socrates eyes- only producers, and these producers only produce what is absolutely necessary for life. Glaucon looks less kindly on this city, calling it a “city of pigs.” He points out that such a city is impossible: people have unnecessary desires as well as these necessary ones. Luxurious city- the “city with a fever”- Once luxuries are in demand, positions like merchant, actor, poet, tutor, and beautician are created. All of this wealth will necessarily lead to wars- needed warriors that aren’t producers to keep principle of specialization. Socrates calls these warriors “guardians” and says they need to develop the right balance between gentleness and toughness. Spirited or honor-loving, philosophical or knowledge-loving, and physically strong and fast. Nature is not sufficient to produce guardians. The education of guardians will involve physical training for the body, and music and poetry for the soul. Education of guardians is the most important aspect of the city. It is the process of
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