Term paper - Tan Choon Liang 007156760 AGB 300 Section 1...

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Tan Choon Liang 007156760 AGB 300 Section 1 July 29 th , 2007 AGB300 Term Paper: Filariasis, Malaria, Plague and African Sleeping Sickness Dr. RS Kaae School of Agriculture
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Lymphatic Filariasis: Lymphatic Filariases is transmitted by mosquitoes, and is a parasitic infectious tropical disease that is casued by 3 thread-like parasitic worms, Wuchereria Bancrotti, Burgia Malayi and Brugia Timori. Of the many symptoms, lymphatic filariases is elephantiasis, which is the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues. This is the first disease discovered to be transmitted by insects. Elephantiasis is caused when the parasites lodge in the lymphatic system. The target of Lymphatic Filariasis are the lower extremities, which is why ears, mucus membranes, and amputation stumps are rarely affected. Overall though, it depends on the species of filaria W. bancrofti that determines whether it affects the legs, arms, vulva, breasts while Brugia timori hardly affects the genitals. Any infection with Onchocerca volvulus and the migration of its microfilariae through the cornea is a major cause of blindness, Onchocerciases. This disease is an endemic and it is found in tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, with a total of 120 million people affected. In endemic areas of the world, like Indonesia, it is up to 54% of the population have microfilariae in their blood. 1500-4000 years ago, Lymphatic Filariasis is thought to have affected humans since approximately, though an exact date for its origin is unknown. The first clear reference to the disease occurs in ancient Greek literature, where scholars discuss diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis and other diagnosis of similar symptoms that can result from leprosy. The first documentation of symptoms occurred in the 16th century, written about the disease during the exploration of Goa, when Jan Huygen Linschoten. Soon after, exploration of other parts of Asia and Africa turned up further reports of disease symptoms. Only centuries later, was it finally discovered and fully developed. In 1866, Timothy Lewis was the building on the work of Jean-Nicolas Demarquay and Otta Henry Wucherer and caused the connection between microfilariae and elephantiasis. This establishes the course of the research that would explain the disease. In 1876, Joseph Bancroft went into the research of adult form of the worm, and finally in 1877 Patrick Manson discovered the life cycle involving arthropod vectors. Manson continued to demonstrate the presence of the worms in mosquitoes. He incorrectly believed that the disease was transmitted through skin contact with water in which the mosquitoes had laid eggs. George Carmichael Low figured out the actual transmission method in 1900, by discovering the presence of the worm in the proboscis of the mosquito vector. This disease is identified by microfilariae on a Giemsa stained thick blood film. The blood can only be drawn at night since the microfilaria circulate at night when their vector, which is
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2008 for the course AGB 300 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '07 term at Cal Poly Pomona.

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Term paper - Tan Choon Liang 007156760 AGB 300 Section 1...

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