Unformatted text preview: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment I.
Scientific Revolution A. new cosmology 1. Ptolemy and Aristotle universe: geocentric, finite, perfect circle orbits, sphere celestial bodies, Juniper: epicycle, Venus: eccentric, fit with Christian theo (earth at center bc last created, finite bc after is heaven, circle= resurrection) 2. why new model: restored texts, exploration showed mistakes, New Calendar 3. Copernicus: heliocentric, not finite, kept circles, his book, introduction to saying this not serious 4. Brahe: same ideas as C, observator off coast of Dane, complete data 5. Kepler: orbits as ellipses, 3 laws of planetary motion, math proof of helio, accum razor: simplest is right 6. Galilei: pisa university, padua in venice, observational proof that helio not right (moons of Jupiter) , rough moon, phases of Venus, Sidereus Nuncius in Latin, Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems in Italian, inquisition, challenges other GrecoRoman science stuff like volume not weight displace water 7. Newton: 3 laws of motion, universal gravitation 8. Church: tries to hide new info bc doesn’t match theo, obscurantism, 1616 Copernican is heresy B. new medical info C. scientific method 1. change: more material, mathematical, inductive, quantifiable experiments 2. Bacon: inductive thinking bc philosopher, only what you observe 3. Descartes: deductive, radical doubt, i think therefore i am, proof of god, heretical, use logic with method, had and fast rules 4. Newton: scientific method, generalizes, only true if proved, same effects=same causes, divine creation almost D. Religion 1. deism: no miracles, no mystery, no heaven, no hell, tolerance, creator god, bible was moral lessons not true, Jesus historical not Son of God bc that is intervening 2. Cartesian dualism: two planes of existence (matter and spirit), Spinoza made another religion off of this E. How spread?: books, pamphlets, correspondence between scientists, Academies sponsored by monarchs to better state (military, trade) and control knowledge, england more freedom just charter (Cavendish, Newcastle Circle) II.
Enlightenment: popularizes S. R. (reaches literate population) and applies the methods to man and society A. philosophes: cannot make changes by themselves, enemies are hierarchy and superstitions, not philosophers, tabula rasa (intelligence gained, no innate ideas) B. how it reached the literate population: translated out of Latin and Greek, home experiments, academies demonstrations, Encyclopédie III. C. where: France, Germany, Italy (esp. Tuscany), English colonies, Russia, England, Netherlands, not at universities sponsored by monarchs, french salons, masonic lodges, coffeehouses D. Education 1. Locke: tabula rasa, empiricism, sensation and reflection, less punishment, opinion for themselves 2. Helvetius experience is the way to learn, better education better sense of self 3. Rousseau Emile, free, own motivation, bureau, make own mistakes E. Religion and Tolerance 1. Voltaire: religious tolerance to all even non christians, deism 2. Paine: deism, my church is in my mind, universal justice, tolerance 3. d’Holbach: atheist, religion makes people numb with fear or fanatics, worship humanity, used wars of religion as evidence F. Government 1. Montesquieu: liberty is the right to do whatever the law permits, personal vs political, division of power, checks and balances, laws should be natural laws and ones made by the people, republican (democracy, aristocracy), monarchical, despotic 2. Rousseau: society corrupted human nature, personal freedom can’t be taken, general will, will of everybody, total democracy G. Law and Justice 1. Beccaria: anti torture, innocents always loose with current system, system to prevent crime rather than punish H. Economics 1. Quesnay: french, physiocrat, encourage trade (laissezfaire), circulate money 2. Smith: scotland during Industrial Revolution, good for self good for society, gov stay out I. Human Rights and Cultural Relativity: 1. Diderot: dialogue between European and Tahitian, anti slavery, sex isn’t shameful, liberty not commerce 2. Montesquieu: persian travelers, spanish inquisition bad, preserve Christianity w/out violence 3. Condorcet: black slavery in particular bad, shows won’t hurt economy Enlightened Rulers A. absolutism vs despotism: Franco venturi changed angloamerican scholar’s minds from despot to absolutist: he says they used reason and enlightened self interest to make a decision about what would benefit country and ruler personally B. Leopold of Tuscany: Beccari C. Joseph II of Austria D. Frederick the Great of Prussia: Voltaire E. Catherine the Great: Diderot F. none in england bc monarchs aren’t that strong and none in france which leads to revolution a little bit ...
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